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  1. Yesterday
  2. January 24 is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 341 days remain until the end of the year (342 in leap years). Events AD 41 – Claudius is proclaimed Roman Emperor by the Praetorian Guard after they assassinate the previous emperor, his nephew Caligula.[1] 914 – Start of the First Fatimid invasion of Egypt.[2] 1438 – The Council of Basel suspends Pope Eugene IV.[3] 1458 – Matthias Corvinus is elected King of Hungary.[4] 1536 – King Henry VIII of England suffers an accident while jousting, leading to a brain injury that historians say may have influenced his later erratic behaviour and possible impotence.[5][6] 1651 – Arauco War: Spanish and Mapuche authorities meet in the Parliament of Boroa renewing the fragile peace established at the parliaments of Quillín in 1641 and 1647.[7][8] 1679 – King Charles II of England dissolves the Cavalier Parliament. 1742 – Charles VII Albert becomes Holy Roman Emperor. 1758 – During the Seven Years' War the leading burghers of Königsberg submit to Elizabeth of Russia, thus forming Russian Prussia (until 1763). 1817 – Crossing of the Andes: Many soldiers of Juan Gregorio de las Heras are captured during the Action of Picheuta. 1835 – Slaves in Salvador da Bahia, Brazil, stage a revolt, which is instrumental in ending slavery there 50 years later. 1848 – California Gold Rush: James W. Marshall finds gold at Sutter's Mill near Sacramento. 1857 – The University of Calcutta is formally founded as the first fully fledged university in South Asia. 1859 – The United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia (later named Romania) is formed as a personal union under the rule of Domnitor Alexandru Ioan Cuza. 1900 – Second Boer War: Boers stop a British attempt to break the Siege of Ladysmith in the Battle of Spion Kop. 1908 – The first Boy Scout troop is organized in England by Robert Baden-Powell. 1915 – World War I: British Grand Fleet battle cruisers under Vice-Admiral Sir David Beatty engage Rear-Admiral Franz von Hipper's battle cruisers in the Battle of Dogger Bank. 1916 – In Brushaber v. Union Pacific Railroad Co., the Supreme Court of the United States declares the federal income tax constitutional. 1918 – The Gregorian calendar is introduced in Russia by decree of the Council of People's Commissars effective February 14 (New Style). 1933 – The 20th Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified, changing the beginning and end of terms for all elected federal offices. 1939 – The deadliest earthquake in Chilean history strikes Chillán, killing approximately 28,000 people. 1942 – World War II: The Allies bombard Bangkok, leading Thailand, then under Japanese control, to declare war against the United States and United Kingdom. 1943 – World War II: Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill conclude a conference in Casablanca. 1946 – The United Nations General Assembly passes its first resolution to establish the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission. 1960 – Algerian War: Some units of European volunteers in Algiers stage an insurrection known as the "barricades week", during which they seize government buildings and clash with local police. 1961 – Goldsboro B-52 crash: A bomber carrying two H-bombs breaks up in mid-air over North Carolina. The uranium core of one weapon remains lost. 1968 – Vietnam War: The 1st Australian Task Force launches Operation Coburg against the North Vietnamese Army and Viet Cong during wider fighting around Long Bình and Biên Hòa. 1972 – Japanese Sgt. Shoichi Yokoi is found hiding in a Guam jungle, where he had been since the end of World War II. 1977 – The Atocha massacre occurs in Madrid during the Spanish transition to democracy. 1978 – Soviet satellite Kosmos 954, with a nuclear reactor on board, burns up in Earth's atmosphere, scattering radioactive debris over Canada's Northwest Territories. Only 1% is recovered. 1984 – Apple Computer places the Macintosh personal computer on sale in the United States. 1989 – Notorious serial killer Ted Bundy, with over 30 known victims, is executed by the electric chair at the Florida State Prison. 1990 – Japan launches Hiten, the country's first lunar probe, the first robotic lunar probe since the Soviet Union's Luna 24 in 1976, and the first lunar probe launched by a country other than Soviet Union or the United States. 2003 – The United States Department of Homeland Security officially begins operation. 2009 – Cyclone Klaus makes landfall near Bordeaux, France, causing 26 deaths as well as extensive disruptions to public transport and power supplies. 2011 – At least 35 are killed and 180 injured in a bombing at Moscow's Domodedovo Airport. Holidays and observances Christian feast day: Babylas of Antioch Cadoc (Wales) Exuperantius of Cingoli Felician of Foligno Francis de Sales Pratulin Martyrs (Greek Catholic Church) January 24 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Earliest day on which Saturday of Souls can fall, while February 27 (or 28 during Leap Year) is the latest; observed 57 days before Easter. (Eastern Orthodox) Feast of Our Lady of Peace (Roman Catholic Church), and its related observances: Feria de Alasitas (La Paz) Unification Day (Romania) Uttar Pradesh Day (Uttar Pradesh, India)
  3. Last week
  4. January 23 is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 342 days remain until the end of the year (343 in leap years). Events 393 – Roman Emperor Theodosius I proclaims his eight-year-old son Honorius co-emperor.[1] 971 – Using crossbows, Song dynasty troops soundly defeat a war elephant corps of the Southern Han at Shao. 1264 – In the conflict between King Henry III of England and his rebellious barons led by Simon de Montfort, King Louis IX of France issues the Mise of Amiens, a one-sided decision in favour of Henry that later leads to the Second Barons' War. 1368 – In a coronation ceremony, Zhu Yuanzhang ascends the throne of China as the Hongwu Emperor, initiating Ming dynasty rule over China that would last for three centuries. 1546 – Having published nothing for eleven years, François Rabelais publishes the Tiers Livre, his sequel to Gargantua and Pantagruel. 1556 – The deadliest earthquake in history, the Shaanxi earthquake, hits Shaanxi province, China. The death toll may have been as high as 830,000.[2] 1570 – James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray, regent for the infant King James VI of Scotland, is assassinated by firearm, the first recorded instance of such. 1571 – The Royal Exchange opens in London. 1579 – The Union of Utrecht forms a Protestant republic in the Netherlands.[3] 1656 – Blaise Pascal publishes the first of his Lettres provinciales.[4] 1719 – The Principality of Liechtenstein is created within the Holy Roman Empire. 1789 – Georgetown College, the first Catholic university in the United States, is founded in Georgetown, Maryland (now a part of Washington, D.C.). 1793 – Second Partition of Poland. 1795 – After an extraordinary charge across the frozen Zuiderzee, the French cavalry captured 14 Dutch ships and 850 guns, in a rare occurrence of a battle between ships and cavalry. 1846 – Slavery in Tunisia is abolished. 1849 – Elizabeth Blackwell is awarded her M.D. by the Geneva Medical College of Geneva, New York, becoming the United States' first female doctor. 1870 – In Montana, U.S. cavalrymen kill 173 Native Americans, mostly women and children, in what becomes known as the Marias Massacre. 1879 – Anglo-Zulu War: The Battle of Rorke's Drift ends. 1899 – The Malolos Constitution is inaugurated, establishing the First Philippine Republic. Emilio Aguinaldo is sworn in as its first President. 1900 – Second Boer War: The Battle of Spion Kop between the forces of the South African Republic and the Orange Free State and British forces ends in a British defeat. 1904 – Ålesund Fire: The Norwegian coastal town Ålesund is devastated by fire, leaving 10,000 people homeless and one person dead. Kaiser Wilhelm II funds the rebuilding of the town in Jugendstil style. 1909 – RMS Republic, a passenger ship of the White Star Line, becomes the first ship to use the CQD distress signal after colliding with another ship, the SS Florida, off the Massachusetts coastline, an event that kills six people. The Republic sinks the next day. 1912 – The International Opium Convention is signed at The Hague. 1920 – The Netherlands refuses to surrender the exiled Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany to the Allies. 1937 – The trial of the anti-Soviet Trotskyist center sees seventeen mid-level Communists accused of sympathizing with Leon Trotsky and plotting to overthrow Joseph Stalin's regime. 1941 – Charles Lindbergh testifies before the U.S. Congress and recommends that the United States negotiate a neutrality pact with Adolf Hitler. 1942 – World War II: The Battle of Rabaul commences Japan's invasion of Australia's Territory of New Guinea. 1943 – World War II: Troops of the British Eighth Army capture Tripoli in Libya from the German–Italian Panzer Army. 1945 – World War II: German admiral Karl Dönitz launches Operation Hannibal. 1950 – The Knesset resolves that Jerusalem is the capital of Israel. 1957 – American inventor Walter Frederick Morrison sells the rights to his flying disc to the Wham-O toy company, which later renames it the "Frisbee". 1958 – After a general uprising and rioting in the streets, President Marcos Pérez Jiménez leaves Venezuela. 1960 – The bathyscaphe USS Trieste breaks a depth record by descending to 10,911 metres (35,797 ft) in the Pacific Ocean. 1961 – The Portuguese luxury cruise ship Santa Maria is hijacked by opponents of the Estado Novo regime with the intention of waging war until dictator António de Oliveira Salazar is overthrown. 1963 – The Guinea-Bissau War of Independence officially begins when PAIGC guerrilla fighters attack the Portuguese army stationed in Tite.[5] 1964 – The 24th Amendment to the United States Constitution, prohibiting the use of poll taxes in national elections, is ratified. 1967 – Diplomatic relations between the Soviet Union and Ivory Coast are established. 1967 – Milton Keynes (England) is founded as a new town by Order in Council, with a planning brief to become a city of 250,000 people. Its initial designated area enclosed three existing towns and twenty one villages. The area to be developed was largely farmland, with evidence of continuous settlement dating back to the Bronze Age. 1968 – USS Pueblo (AGER-2) is attacked and seized by naval forces of North Korea. 1986 – The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame inducts its first members: Little Richard, Chuck Berry, James Brown, Ray Charles, Sam Cooke, Fats Domino, The Everly Brothers, Buddy Holly, Jerry Lee Lewis and Elvis Presley. 1987 – Mohammed Said Hersi Morgan sends a "letter of death" to the president of Somalia, proposing the genocide of the Isaaq people.[6] 1997 – Madeleine Albright becomes the first woman to serve as United States Secretary of State. 1998 – Netscape announced Mozilla, with the intention to release Communicator code as open source. 2001 – Five people attempt to set themselves on fire in Beijing's Tiananmen Square, an act that many people later claim is staged by the Communist Party of China to frame Falun Gong and thus escalate their persecution. 2002 – U.S. journalist Daniel Pearl is kidnapped in Karachi, Pakistan and subsequently murdered. 2003 – A very weak signal from Pioneer 10 is detected for the last time, but no usable data can be extracted. 2018 – A 7.9 Mw  earthquake occurs in the Gulf of Alaska. It is tied as the sixth-largest earthquake ever recorded in the United States, but there are no reports of significant damage or fatalities. 2018 – A double car bombing in Benghazi, Libya, kills at least 33 people and wounds "dozens" of others. The victims include both military personnel and civilians, according to local officials.[7] Holidays and observances Bounty Day (Pitcairn Islands) Christian feast day: Abakuh Marianne of Molokai Emerentiana Espousals of the Blessed Virgin Mary Ildefonsus of Toledo Phillips Brooks (Episcopal Church (USA)) January 23 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose's Jayanti (Orissa, Tripura, and West Bengal, India) World Freedom Day (Taiwan and South Korea)
  5. January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 343 days remain until the end of the year (344 in leap years). Events 613 – Eight-month-old Constantine is crowned as co-emperor (Caesar) by his father Heraclius at Constantinople.[1] 871[2] – Battle of Basing: The West Saxons led by King Æthelred I are defeated by the Danelaw Vikings at Basing. 1506 – The first contingent of 150 Swiss Guards arrives at the Vatican.[3] 1517 – The Ottoman Empire under Selim I defeats the Mamluk Sultanate and captures present-day Egypt at the Battle of Ridaniya.[4] 1555 – The Ava Kingdom falls to the Taungoo Dynasty in what is now Myanmar. 1689 – The Convention Parliament convenes to determine whether James II and VII, the last Roman Catholic monarch of England, Ireland and Scotland, had vacated the thrones of England and Ireland when he fled to France in 1688. 1808 – The Portuguese royal family arrives in Brazil after fleeing the French army's invasion of Portugal two months earlier. 1824 – The Ashantis defeat British forces in the Gold Coast. 1849 – Second Anglo-Sikh War: The Siege of Multan ends after nine months when the last Sikh defenders of Multan, Punjab, surrender. 1863 – The January Uprising breaks out in Poland, Lithuania and Belarus. The aim of the national movement is to regain Polish–Lithuanian–Ruthenian Commonwealth from occupation by Russia. 1879 – The Battle of Isandlwana during the Anglo-Zulu War results in a British defeat. 1879 – The Battle of Rorke's Drift, also during the Anglo-Zulu War and just some 15 km away from Isandlwana, results in a British victory. 1890 – The United Mine Workers of America is founded in Columbus, Ohio. 1901 – Edward VII is proclaimed King after the death of his mother, Queen Victoria. 1905 – Bloody Sunday in Saint Petersburg, beginning of the 1905 revolution. 1906 – SS Valencia runs aground on rocks on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, killing more than 130. 1915 – Over 600 people are killed in Guadalajara, Mexico, when a train plunges off the tracks into a deep canyon. 1917 – American entry into World War I: President Wilson of the still-neutral United States calls for "peace without victory" in Europe. 1919 – Act Zluky is signed, unifying the Ukrainian People's Republic and the West Ukrainian National Republic. 1924 – Ramsay MacDonald becomes the first Labour Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. 1927 – Teddy Wakelam gives the first live radio commentary of a football match, between Arsenal F.C. and Sheffield United at Highbury. 1941 – World War II: British and Commonwealth troops capture Tobruk from Italian forces during Operation Compass. 1943 – World War II: Australian and American forces defeat Japanese army and navy units in the bitterly fought Battle of Buna–Gona.[5] 1944 – World War II: The Allies commence Operation Shingle, an assault on Anzio and Nettuno, Italy. 1946 – In Iran, Qazi Muhammad declares the independent people's Republic of Mahabad at Chahar Cheragh Square in the Kurdish city of Mahabad; he becomes the new president and Haji Baba Sheikh becomes the prime minister. 1946 – Creation of the Central Intelligence Group, forerunner of the Central Intelligence Agency. 1947 – KTLA, the first commercial television station west of the Mississippi River, begins operation in Hollywood. 1957 – Israel withdraws from the Sinai Peninsula. 1957 – The New York City "Mad Bomber", George P. Metesky, is arrested in Waterbury, Connecticut and charged with planting more than 30 bombs. 1963 – The Élysée Treaty of cooperation between France and Germany is signed by Charles de Gaulle and Konrad Adenauer. 1968 – Apollo 5 lifts off carrying the first Lunar module into space. 1968 – Operation Igloo White, a US electronic surveillance system to stop communist infiltration into South Vietnam begins installation. 1970 – The Boeing 747, the world's first "jumbo jet", enters commercial service for launch customer Pan American Airways with its maiden voyage from John F. Kennedy International Airport to London Heathrow Airport. 1971 – The Singapore Declaration, one of the two most important documents to the uncodified constitution of the Commonwealth of Nations, is issued. 1973 – The Supreme Court of the United States delivers its decisions in Roe v. Wade and Doe v. Bolton, legalizing elective abortion in all fifty states. 1973 – The crew of Apollo 17 addresses a joint session of Congress after the completion of the final Apollo moon landing mission. 1973 – A chartered Boeing 707 explodes in flames upon landing at Kano Airport, Nigeria, killing 176. 1973 – In a bout for the world heavyweight boxing championship in Kingston, Jamaica, challenger George Foreman knocks down champion Joe Frazier six times in the first two rounds before the fight is stopped by referee Arthur Mercante.[6] 1984 – The Apple Macintosh, the first consumer computer to popularize the computer mouse and the graphical user interface, is introduced during a Super Bowl XVIII television commercial. 1987 – Philippine security forces open fire on a crowd of 10,000–15,000 demonstrators at Malacañang Palace, Manila, killing 13. 1992 – Rebel forces occupy Zaire's national radio station in Kinshasa and broadcast a demand for the government's resignation. 1992 – Space Shuttle program: the space shuttle Discovery launches on STS-42 carrying Dr. Roberta Bondar, who becomes the first Canadian woman and the first neurologist in space. 1995 – Israeli–Palestinian conflict: Beit Lid massacre: In central Israel, near Netanya, two Gazans blow themselves up at a military transit point, killing 19 Israelis. 1998 – Space Shuttle program: space shuttle Endeavour launches on STS-89 to dock with the Russian space station Mir.[7] 1999 – Australian missionary Graham Staines and his two sons are burned alive by radical Hindus while sleeping in their car in Eastern India. 2002 – Kmart becomes the largest retailer in United States history to file for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection. 2006 – Evo Morales is inaugurated as President of Bolivia, becoming the country's first indigenous president. 2007 – At least 88 people are killed when two car bombs explode in the Bab Al-Sharqi market in central Baghdad, Iraq.[8] Holidays and observances Christian feast day: Anastasius of Persia Gaudentius of Novara László Batthyány-Strattmann Laura Vicuna Vincent Pallotti Vincent of Saragossa Vincent, Orontius, and Victor Blessed William Joseph Chaminade January 22 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Day of Unity of Ukraine (Ukraine) Grandfather's Day (Poland)
  6. January 21 is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 344 days remain until the end of the year (345 in leap years). Events 763 – Following the Battle of Bakhamra between Alids and Abbasids near Kufa, the Alid rebellion ends with the death of Ibrahim, brother of Isa ibn Musa.[1] 1525 – The Swiss Anabaptist Movement is founded when Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, and about a dozen others baptize each other in the home of Manz's mother in Zürich, breaking a thousand-year tradition of church-state union.[2] 1535 – Following the Affair of the Placards, the French king leads an anti-Protestant procession through Paris.[3][4] 1720 – Sweden and Prussia sign the Treaty of Stockholm.[5] 1749 – The Teatro Filarmonico in Verona is destroyed by fire, as a result of a torch being left behind in the box of a nobleman after a performance. It is rebuilt in 1754.[6] 1774 – Abdul Hamid I becomes Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and Caliph of Islam. 1789 – The first American novel, The Power of Sympathy or the Triumph of Nature Founded in Truth by William Hill Brown, is printed in Boston. 1793 – After being found guilty of treason by the French National Convention, Louis XVI of France is executed by guillotine. 1854 – The RMS Tayleur sinks off Lambay Island on her maiden voyage from Liverpool to Australia with great loss of life.[7] 1861 – American Civil War: Jefferson Davis resigns from the United States Senate. 1893 – The Tati Concessions Land, formerly part of Matabeleland, is formally annexed to the Bechuanaland Protectorate, now Botswana. 1908 – New York City passes the Sullivan Ordinance, making it illegal for women to smoke in public, only to have the measure vetoed by the mayor. 1911 – The first Monte Carlo Rally takes place. 1915 – Kiwanis International is founded in Detroit. 1919 – A revolutionary Irish parliament is founded and declares the independence of the Irish Republic. One of the first engagements of the Irish War of Independence takes place. 1925 – Albania declares itself a republic. 1931 – Sir Isaac Isaacs is sworn in as the first Australian-born Governor-General of Australia. 1941 – Sparked by the murder of a German officer in Bucharest, Romania the day before, members of the Iron Guard engaged in a rebellion and pogrom killing 125 Jews. 1948 – The Flag of Quebec is adopted and flown for the first time over the National Assembly of Quebec. The day is marked annually as Québec Flag Day. 1950 – American lawyer and government official Alger Hiss is convicted of perjury. 1954 – The first nuclear-powered submarine, the USS Nautilus, is launched in Groton, Connecticut by Mamie Eisenhower, the First Lady of the United States. 1960 – Little Joe 1B, a Mercury spacecraft, lifts off from Wallops Island, Virginia with Miss Sam, a female rhesus monkey on board. 1960 – Avianca Flight 671 crashes at Montego Bay, Jamaica airport, killing 37 people. 1960 – A coal mine collapses at Holly Country, South Africa, killing 435 miners. 1968 – Vietnam War: Battle of Khe Sanh: One of the most publicized and controversial battles of the war begins. 1968 – A B-52 bomber crashes near Thule Air Base, contaminating the area after its nuclear payload ruptures. One of the four bombs remains unaccounted for after the cleanup operation is complete. 1971 – The current Emley Moor transmitting station, the tallest free-standing structure in the United Kingdom, begins transmitting UHF broadcasts. 1976 – Commercial service of Concorde begins with the London-Bahrain and Paris-Rio routes. 1980 – Iran Air Flight 291 crashes in the Alborz Mountains while on approach to Mehrabad International Airport in Tehran, Iran, killing 128 people.[8] 1981 – Production of the iconic DeLorean sports car begins in Dunmurry, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom. 1985 – Galaxy Airlines Flight 203 crashes near Reno–Tahoe International Airport in Reno, Nevada, killing 70 people.[9] 1997 – The U.S. House of Representatives votes 395–28 to reprimand Newt Gingrich for ethics violations, making him the first Speaker of the House to be so disciplined. 1999 – War on Drugs: In one of the largest drug busts in American history, the United States Coast Guard intercepts a ship with over 4,300 kilograms (9,500 lb) of cocaine on board. 2000 – Ecuador: After the Ecuadorian Congress is seized by indigenous organizations, Col. Lucio Gutiérrez, Carlos Solorzano and Antonio Vargas depose President Jamil Mahuad. Gutierrez is later replaced by Gen. Carlos Mendoza, who resigns and allows Vice-President Gustavo Noboa to succeed Mahuad. 2003 – A 7.6 magnitude earthquake strikes the Mexican state of Colima, killing 29 and leaving approximately 10,000 people homeless.[10] 2004 – NASA's MER-A (the Mars Rover Spirit) ceases communication with mission control. The problem lies in the management of its flash memory and is fixed remotely from Earth on February 6. 2005 – In Belmopan, Belize, the unrest over the government's new taxes erupts into riots. 2009 – Israel withdraws from the Gaza Strip, officially ending a three-week war it had with Hamas. However, intermittent fire by both sides continues in the weeks to follow. 2011 – Anti-government demonstrations take place in Tirana, Albania. Four people lose their lives from gunshots, allegedly fired from armed police protecting the Prime Minister's office.[11] 2017 – Over 400 cities across America and 160+ countries worldwide participate in a large-scale women's march, on Donald Trump's first full day as President of the United States.[12] 2018 – Rocket Lab's Electron becomes the first rocket to reach orbit using an electric pump-fed engine and deploys three CubeSats. Holidays and observances Babinden (Bulgaria, Serbia) Birthday of Princess Ingrid Alexandra (Norway) Christian feast day: Agnes Demiana (Coptic Church) Fructuosus John Yi Yun-il (one of The Korean Martyrs) Meinrad of Einsiedeln January 21 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Errol Barrow Day (Barbados) Flag Day (Quebec) Grandmother's Day (Poland) Lady of Altagracia Day (Dominican Republic) Lincoln Alexander Day (Canada)
  7. January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 345 days remain until the end of the year (346 in leap years). Events 250 – Pope Fabian is martyred during the Decian persecution.[1] 649 – King Chindasuinth, at the urging of bishop Braulio of Zaragoza, crowns his son Recceswinth as co-ruler of the Visigothic Kingdom. 1156 – Freeholder Lalli slays the English missionary-bishop Henry with an axe, on the ice of Lake Köyliö in Finland (according to legend).[2][3][4] 1265 – The first English parliament to include not only Lords but also representatives of the major towns holds its first meeting in the Palace of Westminster, now commonly known as the "Houses of Parliament". 1320 – Duke Wladyslaw Lokietek becomes king of Poland. 1356 – Edward Balliol surrenders his claim to the Scottish throne to Edward III in exchange for an English pension. 1523 – Christian II is forced to abdicate as King of Denmark and Norway. 1567 – Battle of Rio de Janeiro: Portuguese forces under the command of Estácio de Sá definitively drive the French out of Rio de Janeiro. 1576 – The Mexican city of León is founded by order of the viceroy Don Martín Enríquez de Almanza. 1649 – The High Court of Justice for the trial of Charles I begins its proceedings. 1783 – The Kingdom of Great Britain signed preliminary articles of peace with France, setting the stage to the official end of hostilities in the American Revolutionary War later that year.[5] 1785 – Invading Siamese forces attempt to exploit the political chaos in Vietnam, but are ambushed and annihilated at the Mekong river by the Tây Sơn in the Battle of Rạch Gầm-Xoài Mút. 1788 – The third and main part of First Fleet arrives at Botany Bay. Arthur Phillip decides that Port Jackson is a more suitable location for a colony. 1839 – In the Battle of Yungay, Chile defeats an alliance between Peru and Bolivia. 1841 – Hong Kong Island is occupied by the British. 1877 – The last day of the Constantinople Conference results in agreement for political reforms in the Balkans. 1887 – The United States Senate allows the Navy to lease Pearl Harbor as a naval base. 1921 – The British K-class submarine HMS K5 sinks in the English Channel; all 56 on board die. 1921 – The first Constitution of Turkey is adopted, making fundamental changes in the source and exercise of sovereignty by consecrating the principle of national sovereignty. 1929 – The first full-length talking motion picture filmed outdoors, In Old Arizona, is released. 1936 – King George V of the United Kingdom dies. His eldest son succeeds to the throne, becoming Edward VIII. The title Prince of Wales is not used for another 22 years. 1937 – Franklin D. Roosevelt and John Nance Garner are sworn in for their second terms as U.S. President and U.S. Vice President; it is the first time a Presidential Inauguration takes place on January 20 since the 20th Amendment changed the dates of presidential terms. 1941 – A German officer is killed in Bucharest, Romania, sparking a rebellion and pogrom by the Iron Guard, killing 125 Jews and 30 soldiers. 1942 – World War II: At the Wannsee Conference held in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee, senior Nazi German officials discuss the implementation of the "Final Solution to the Jewish question". 1945 – World War II: The provisional government of Béla Miklós in Hungary agrees to an armistice with the Allies. 1945 – World War II: Germany begins the evacuation of 1.8 million people from East Prussia, a task which will take nearly two months. 1949 – Point Four Program a program for economic aid to poor countries announced by United States President Harry S. Truman in his inaugural address for a full term as President. 1954 – In the United States, the National Negro Network is established with 40 charter member radio stations. 1961 – John F. Kennedy is inaugurated the 35th President of the United States of America, becoming the second youngest man to take the office, and the first Catholic. 1972 – Pakistan launched its nuclear weapons program, a few weeks after its defeat in the Bangladesh Liberation War, as well as the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971. 1973 – Amílcar Cabral, leader of the independence movement in Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde, is assassinated in Conakry, Guinea.[6] 1981 – Twenty minutes after Ronald Reagan is inaugurated as the 40th President of the United States of America, Iran releases 52 American hostages. 1986 – In the United States, Martin Luther King Jr. Day is celebrated as a federal holiday for the first time. 1990 – Protests in Azerbaijan, part of the Dissolution of the Soviet Union. 1991 – Sudan's government imposes Islamic law nationwide, worsening the civil war between the country's Muslim north and Christian south. 1992 – Air Inter Flight 148, an Airbus A320-111, crashes into a mountain near Strasbourg, France killing 87 of the 96 people on board. 2001 – President of the Philippines Joseph Estrada is ousted in a nonviolent four-day revolution, and is succeeded by Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. 2009 – Barack Obama is inaugurated as the 44th President of the United States of America, becoming the first African-American President of the United States.[7] 2009 – A protest movement in Iceland culminates as the 2009 Icelandic financial crisis protests start. 2017 – Donald Trump is inaugurated as the 45th President of the United States of America; at the time he was the oldest person to assume the office.[8] 2018 – A group of four or five gunmen attack The Inter-Continental Hotel in Kabul, Afghanistan, sparking a 12-hour battle. The attack kills 40 people and injures many others.[9] Holidays and observances Armed Forces Day (Mali) Army Day (Laos) Christian feast day: Abadios Blessed Basil Moreau Eustochia Smeralda Calafato Euthymius the Great Fabian Manchán of Lemanaghan Maria Cristina of the Immaculate Conception Brando Richard Rolle (Church of England) Sebastian Stephen Min Kuk-ka (one of The Korean Martyrs) January 20 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Heroes' Day (Cape Verde) Inauguration Day, held every four years in odd-numbered years immediately following years divisible by 4, except for the public ceremony when January 20 falls on Sunday (the public ceremony is held the following day; however, the terms of offices still begin on the 20th) (United States of America, not a federal holiday for all government employees but only for those working in the Capital region) Martyrs' Day (Azerbaijan)
  8. January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 346 days remain until the end of the year (347 in leap years). Events 379 – Emperor Gratian elevates Flavius Theodosius at Sirmium to Augustus, and gives him authority over all the eastern provinces of the Roman Empire.[1] 649 – Conquest of Kucha: The forces of Kucha surrender after a forty-day siege led by Tang dynasty general Ashina She'er, establishing Tang control over the northern Tarim Basin in Xinjiang.[2] 1419 – Hundred Years' War: Rouen surrenders to Henry V of England, completing his reconquest of Normandy.[3] 1511 – The Italian Duchy of Mirandola surrenders to the Pope.[4] 1520 – Sten Sture the Younger, the Regent of Sweden, is mortally wounded at the Battle of Bogesund and dies on February 3.[5] 1607 – San Agustin Church in Manila is officially completed; it is the oldest church still standing in the Philippines. 1764 – John Wilkes is expelled from the British House of Commons for seditious libel.[6] 1764 – Bolle Willum Luxdorph records in his diary that a mail bomb, possibly the world's first, has severely injured the Danish Colonel Poulsen, residing at Børglum Abbey.[7] 1788 – The second group of ships of the First Fleet arrive at Botany Bay. 1795 – The Batavian Republic is proclaimed in the Netherlands, replacing the Dutch Republic.[8] 1817 – An army of 5,423 soldiers, led by General José de San Martín, crosses the Andes from Argentina to liberate Chile and then Peru. 1829 – Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's Faust: The First Part of the Tragedy receives its premiere performance.[9] 1839 – The British East India Company captures Aden. 1853 – Giuseppe Verdi's opera Il trovatore receives its premiere performance in Rome. 1861 – American Civil War: Georgia joins South Carolina, Florida, Mississippi, and Alabama in declaring secession from the United States. 1862 – American Civil War: Battle of Mill Springs: The Confederacy suffers its first significant defeat in the conflict. 1871 – Franco-Prussian War: In the Siege of Paris, Prussia wins the Battle of St. Quentin. Meanwhile, the French attempt to break the siege in the Battle of Buzenval will end unsuccessfully the following day. 1883 – The first electric lighting system employing overhead wires, built by Thomas Edison, begins service at Roselle, New Jersey.[10] 1899 – Anglo-Egyptian Sudan is formed. 1915 – Georges Claude patents the neon discharge tube for use in advertising. 1915 – German strategic bombing during World War I: German zeppelins bomb the towns of Great Yarmouth and King's Lynn in the United Kingdom killing at least 20 people, in the first major aerial bombardment of a civilian target. 1917 – Silvertown explosion: A blast at a munitions factory in London kills 73 and injures over 400. The resulting fire causes over £2,000,000 worth of damage. 1920 – The United States Senate votes against joining the League of Nations. 1920 – The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is founded. 1937 – Howard Hughes sets a new air record by flying from Los Angeles to New York City in seven hours, 28 minutes, 25 seconds. 1941 – World War II: HMS Greyhound and other escorts of convoy AS-12 sink Italian submarine Neghelli with all hands 40 miles (64 km) northeast of Falkonera. 1942 – World War II: The Japanese conquest of Burma begins. 1945 – World War II: Soviet forces liberate the Łódź Ghetto. Of more than 200,000 inhabitants in 1940, less than 900 had survived the Nazi occupation. 1946 – General Douglas MacArthur establishes the International Military Tribunal for the Far East in Tokyo to try Japanese war criminals. 1953 – Almost 72 percent of all television sets in the United States are tuned into I Love Lucy to watch Lucy give birth.[11] 1960 – Japan and the United States sign the US–Japan Mutual Security Treaty 1969 – Student Jan Palach dies after setting himself on fire three days earlier in Prague's Wenceslas Square to protest about the invasion of Czechoslovakia by the Soviet Union in 1968. His funeral turns into another major protest. 1974 – China gains control over all the Paracel Islands after a military engagement between the naval forces of China and South Vietnam 1977 – President Gerald Ford pardons Iva Toguri D'Aquino (a.k.a. "Tokyo Rose"). 1978 – The last Volkswagen Beetle made in Germany leaves VW's plant in Emden. Beetle production in Latin America continues until 2003. 1981 – Iran hostage crisis: United States and Iranian officials sign an agreement to release 52 American hostages after 14 months of captivity. 1983 – Nazi war criminal Klaus Barbie is arrested in Bolivia.[12] 1983 – The Apple Lisa, the first commercial personal computer from Apple Inc. to have a graphical user interface and a computer mouse, is announced. 1986 – The first IBM PC computer virus is released into the wild. A boot sector virus dubbed (c)Brain, it was created by the Farooq Alvi Brothers in Lahore, Pakistan, reportedly to deter unauthorized copying of the software they had written. 1991 – Gulf War: Iraq fires a second Scud missile into Israel, causing 15 injuries. 1993 – Czech Republic and Slovakia join the United Nations. 1995 – After being struck by lightning the crew of Bristow Flight 56C are forced to ditch. All 18 aboard are later rescued. 1996 – The barge North Cape oil spill occurs as an engine fire forces the tugboat Scandia ashore on Moonstone Beach in South Kingstown, Rhode Island. 1997 – Yasser Arafat returns to Hebron after more than 30 years and joins celebrations over the handover of the last Israeli-controlled West Bank city. 1999 – British Aerospace agrees to acquire the defence subsidiary of the General Electric Company plc, forming BAE Systems in November 1999. 2007 – Turkish-Armenian journalist Hrant Dink is assassinated in front of his newspaper's Istanbul office by 17-year-old Turkish ultra-nationalist Ogün Samast. 2007 – Four-man Team N2i, using only skis and kites, completes a 1,093-mile (1,759 km) trek to reach the Antarctic pole of inaccessibility for the first time since 1965 and for the first time ever without mechanical assistance.[13] 2012 – The Hong Kong-based file-sharing website Megaupload is shut down by the FBI.[14] 2014 – A bomb attack on an army convoy in the city of Bannu kills at least 26 Pakistani soldiers and injures 38 others. Holidays and observances Birthday of Edgar Allan Poe (commemorated by the Poe Toaster at his grave in Baltimore) Christian feast day: Bassianus of Lodi Henry of Uppsala Marius, Martha, Audifax, and Abachum Mark of Ephesus (Eastern Orthodox Church) Pontianus of Spoleto Wulfstan, Bishop of Worcester January 19 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Confederate Heroes Day (Texas), and its related observance: Robert E. Lee Day (Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia and Mississippi) Feast of Sultán (Sovereignty), first day of the 17th month of the Baháʼí calendar (Baháʼí Faith) (only if Nowruz falls on March 21, otherwise the dates shifts) Husband's Day (Iceland) Kokborok Day (Tripura, India) Theophany / Epiphany (Eastern and Oriental Orthodoxy), and its related observances: Timkat, or 20 during Leap Year (Ethiopian Orthodox) Vodici or Baptism of Jesus (North Macedonia)
  9. January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 347 days remain until the end of the year (348 in leap years). Events 474 – Seven-year-old Leo II succeeds his maternal grandfather Leo I as Byzantine emperor.[1] He dies ten months later. 532 – Nika riots in Constantinople fail. 1126 – Emperor Huizong abdicates the Chinese throne in favour of his son Emperor Qinzong.[2] 1486 – King Henry VII of England marries Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV uniting the House of Lancaster and the House of York.[3] 1562 – Pope Pius IV reopens the Council of Trent for its third and final session. 1591 – King Naresuan of Siam kills Crown Prince Mingyi Swa of Burma in single combat, for which this date is now observed as Royal Thai Armed Forces day. 1670 – Henry Morgan captures Panama. 1701 – Frederick I crowns himself King of Prussia in Königsberg. 1778 – James Cook is the first known European to discover the Hawaiian Islands, which he names the "Sandwich Islands". 1788 – The first elements of the First Fleet carrying 736 convicts from Great Britain to Australia arrive at Botany Bay. 1806 – Jan Willem Janssens surrenders the Dutch Cape Colony to the British. 1866 – Wesley College is established in Melbourne, Australia.[4] 1871 – Wilhelm I of Germany is proclaimed Kaiser Wilhelm in the Hall of Mirrors of the Palace of Versailles (France) towards the end of the Franco-Prussian War. Wilhelm already had the title of German Emperor since the constitution of 1 January 1871, but he had hesitated to accept the title. 1886 – Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. 1896 – An X-ray generating machine is exhibited for the first time by H. L. Smith. 1911 – Eugene B. Ely lands on the deck of the USS Pennsylvania anchored in San Francisco Bay, the first time an aircraft landed on a ship. 1913 – First Balkan War: A Greek flotilla defeats the Ottoman Navy in the Naval Battle of Lemnos, securing the islands of the Northern Aegean Sea for Greece. 1915 – Japan issues the "Twenty-One Demands" to the Republic of China in a bid to increase its power in East Asia. 1919 – World War I: The Paris Peace Conference opens in Versailles, France. 1919 – Ignacy Jan Paderewski becomes Prime Minister of the newly independent Poland. 1941 – World War II: British troops launch a general counter-offensive against Italian East Africa. 1943 – Warsaw Ghetto Uprising: The first uprising of Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto. 1945 – World War II: Liberation of Kraków, Poland by the Red Army. 1958 – Willie O'Ree, the first Black Canadian National Hockey League player, makes his NHL debut with the Boston Bruins. 1960 – Capital Airlines Flight 20 crashes into a farm in Charles City County, Virginia, killing all 50 aboard, the third fatal Capital Airlines crash in as many years. 1967 – Albert DeSalvo, the "Boston Strangler", is convicted of numerous crimes and is sentenced to life imprisonment. 1969 – United Airlines Flight 266 crashes into Santa Monica Bay killing all 32 passengers and six crew members. 1974 – A Disengagement of Forces agreement is signed between the Israeli and Egyptian governments, ending conflict on the Egyptian front of the Yom Kippur War. 1976 – Lebanese Christian militias kill at least 1,000 in Karantina, Beirut. 1977 – Scientists identify a previously unknown bacterium as the cause of the mysterious Legionnaires' disease. 1977 – Australia's worst rail disaster occurs at Granville, Sydney killing 83. 1977 – SFR Yugoslavia's Prime minister, Džemal Bijedić, his wife and six others are killed in a plane crash in Bosnia and Herzegovina. 1978 – The European Court of Human Rights finds the United Kingdom's government guilty of mistreating prisoners in Northern Ireland, but not guilty of torture. 1981 – Phil Smith and Phil Mayfield parachute off a Houston skyscraper, becoming the first two people to BASE jump from objects in all four categories: buildings, antennae, spans (bridges), and earth (cliffs). 1983 – The International Olympic Committee restores Jim Thorpe's Olympic medals to his family. 1990 – Washington, D.C. Mayor Marion Barry is arrested for drug possession in an FBI sting. 1993 – Martin Luther King, Jr. Day is officially observed for the first time in all 50 US states. 2002 – The Sierra Leone Civil War is declared over. 2003 – A bushfire kills four people and destroys more than 500 homes in Canberra, Australia. 2005 – The Airbus A380, the world's largest commercial jet, is unveiled at a ceremony in Toulouse, France 2007 – The strongest storm in the United Kingdom in 17 years kills 14 people and Germany sees the worst storm since 1999 with 13 deaths. Cyclone Kyrill causes at least 44 deaths across 20 countries in Western Europe. 2008 – The Euphronios Krater is unveiled in Rome after being returned to Italy by the Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2018 – A bus catches fire on the Samara–Shymkent road in Yrgyz District, Aktobe, Kazakhstan.[5] The fire kills 52 passengers, with three passengers and two drivers escaping. Holidays and observances Christian feast day: Amy Carmichael (Church of England) Athanasius of Alexandria (Eastern Orthodox Church) Confession of Peter (Eastern Orthodox, some Anglican and Lutheran Churches) Cyril of Alexandria Deicolus Margaret of Hungary Prisca Volusianus of Tours January 18 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Martin Luther King Jr. Day (Federal Holiday, United States of America) Royal Thai Armed Forces Day (Thailand) Week of Prayer for Christian Unity (January 18–25) (Christianity)
  10. Earlier
  11. January 17 is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 348 days remain until the end of the year (349 in leap years). Events 38 BC – Octavian divorces his wife Scribonia and marries Livia Drusilla, ending the fragile peace between the Second Triumvirate and Sextus Pompey.[1] 1362 – Saint Marcellus' flood kills at least 25,000 people on the shores of the North Sea.[2] 1377 – Pope Gregory XI reaches Rome, after deciding to move the Papacy back to Rome from Avignon.[3] 1524 – Giovanni da Verrazzano sets sail westward from Madeira to find a sea route to the Pacific Ocean. 1562 – France grants religious toleration to the Huguenots in the Edict of Saint-Germain.[4] 1595 – During the French Wars of Religion, Henry IV of France declares war on Spain. 1608 – Emperor Susenyos I of Ethiopia surprises an Oromo army at Ebenat; his army reportedly kills 12,000 Oromo at the cost of 400 of his men. 1648 – England's Long Parliament passes the "Vote of No Addresses", breaking off negotiations with King Charles I and thereby setting the scene for the second phase of the English Civil War.[5] 1773 – Captain James Cook leads the first expedition to sail south of the Antarctic Circle.[6] 1781 – American Revolutionary War: Battle of Cowpens: Continental troops under Brigadier General Daniel Morgan defeat British forces under Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarleton at the battle in South Carolina. 1799 – Maltese patriot Dun Mikiel Xerri, along with a number of other patriots, is executed. 1811 – Mexican War of Independence: In the Battle of Calderón Bridge, a heavily outnumbered Spanish force of 6,000 troops defeats nearly 100,000 Mexican revolutionaries. 1852 – The United Kingdom signs the Sand River Convention with the South African Republic. 1873 – A group of Modoc warriors defeats the United States Army in the First Battle of the Stronghold, part of the Modoc War. 1885 – A British force defeats a large Dervish army at the Battle of Abu Klea in the Sudan. 1893 – Lorrin A. Thurston, along with the Citizens' Committee of Public Safety, led the Overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii and the government of Queen Liliʻuokalani.[7] 1899 – The United States takes possession of Wake Island in the Pacific Ocean.[8] 1903 – El Yunque National Forest in Puerto Rico becomes part of the United States National Forest System as the Luquillo Forest Reserve. 1904 – Anton Chekhov's The Cherry Orchard receives its premiere performance at the Moscow Art Theatre.[9] 1912 – British polar explorer Captain Robert Falcon Scott reaches the South Pole, one month after Roald Amundsen. 1915 – Russia defeats Ottoman Turkey in the Battle of Sarikamish during the Caucasus Campaign of World War I. 1917 – The United States pays Denmark $25 million for the Virgin Islands.[10] 1918 – Finnish Civil War: The first serious battles take place between the Red Guards and the White Guard. 1920 – Alcohol Prohibition begins in the United States as the Volstead Act goes into effect.[11] 1941 – Franco-Thai War: Vichy French forces inflict a decisive defeat over the Royal Thai Navy. 1943 – World War II: Greek submarine Papanikolis captures the 200-ton sailing vessel Agios Stefanos and mans her with part of her crew. 1944 – World War II: Allied forces launch the first of four assaults on Monte Cassino with the intention of breaking through the Winter Line and seizing Rome, an effort that would ultimately take four months and cost 105,000 Allied casualties. 1945 – World War II: The Vistula–Oder Offensive forces German troops out of Warsaw. 1945 – The SS-Totenkopfverbände begin the evacuation of the Auschwitz concentration camp as Soviet forces close in. 1945 – Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg is taken into Soviet custody while in Hungary; he is never publicly seen again.[12] 1946 – The UN Security Council holds its first session. 1948 – The Renville Agreement between the Netherlands and Indonesia is ratified. 1950 – The Great Brink's Robbery: Eleven thieves steal more than $2 million from an armored car company's offices in Boston.[13] 1950 – United Nations Security Council Resolution 79 relating to arms control is adopted. 1961 – U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower delivers a televised farewell address to the nation three days before leaving office, in which he warns against the accumulation of power by the "military–industrial complex" as well as the dangers of massive spending, especially deficit spending. 1961 – Former Congolese Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba is murdered in circumstances suggesting the support and complicity of the governments of Belgium and the United States. 1966 – Palomares incident: A B-52 bomber collides with a KC-135 Stratotanker over Spain, killing seven airmen, and dropping three 70-kiloton nuclear bombs near the town of Palomares and another one into the sea. 1969 – Black Panther Party members Bunchy Carter and John Huggins are killed during a meeting in Campbell Hall on the campus of UCLA. 1977 – Capital punishment in the United States resumes after a ten-year hiatus, as convicted murderer Gary Gilmore is executed by firing squad in Utah. 1981 – President of the Philippines Ferdinand Marcos lifts martial law eight years and five months after declaring it. 1991 – Gulf War: Operation Desert Storm begins early in the morning as aircraft strike positions across Iraq, it is also the first major combat sortie for the F-117. LCDR Scott Speicher's F/A-18C Hornet from VFA-81 is shot down by a Mig-25 and is the first American casualty of the War. Iraq fires eight Scud missiles into Israel in an unsuccessful bid to provoke Israeli retaliation. 1991 – Crown prince Harald V of Norway becomes King Harald V, following the death of his father, King Olav V. 1992 – During a visit to South Korea, Japanese Prime Minister Kiichi Miyazawa apologizes for forcing Korean women into sexual slavery during World War II. 1994 – The 6.7 Mw  Northridge earthquake shakes the Greater Los Angeles Area with a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX (Violent), leaving 57 people dead and more than 8,700 injured. 1995 – The 6.9 Mw  Great Hanshin earthquake shakes the southern Hyōgo Prefecture with a maximum Shindo of VII, leaving 5,502–6,434 people dead, and 251,301–310,000 displaced. 1996 – The Czech Republic applies for membership of the European Union. 1997 – Cape Canaveral Air Force Station: A Delta II carrying the GPS IIR-1 satellite explodes 13 seconds after launch, dropping 250 tons of burning rocket remains around the launch pad. 1998 – Lewinsky scandal: Matt Drudge breaks the story of the Bill Clinton–Monica Lewinsky affair on his Drudge Report website. 2002 – Mount Nyiragongo erupts in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, displacing an estimated 400,000 people. 2007 – The Doomsday Clock is set to five minutes to midnight in response to North Korea's nuclear testing. 2010 – Rioting begins between Muslim and Christian groups in Jos, Nigeria, results in at least 200 deaths. Holidays and observances Christian feast day: Anthony the Great Blessed Angelo Paoli Blessed Gamelbert of Michaelsbuch Charles Gore (Church of England) Jenaro Sánchez Delgadillo (one of Saints of the Cristero War) Mildgyth Our Lady of Pontmain Sulpitius the Pious January 17 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) National Day (Menorca, Spain) The opening ceremony of Patras Carnival, celebrated until Clean Monday. (Patras)
  12. January 16 is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 349 days remain until the end of the year (350 in leap years). Events 27 BCE – Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus is granted the title Augustus by the Roman Senate, marking the beginning of the Roman Empire.[1] 378 – General Siyaj K'ak' conquers Tikal, enlarging the domain of King Spearthrower Owl of Teotihuacán.[2] 550 – Gothic War: The Ostrogoths, under King Totila, conquer Rome after a long siege, by bribing the Isaurian garrison.[3] 929 – Emir Abd-ar-Rahman III establishes the Caliphate of Córdoba.[4] 1120 – The Council of Nablus is held, establishing the earliest surviving written laws of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem.[5] 1362 – Saint Marcellus's flood kills at least 25,000 people on the shores of the North Sea.[6] 1537 – Bigod's Rebellion, an armed insurrection attempting to resist the English Reformation, begins.[7] 1547 – Grand Duke Ivan IV of Muscovy becomes the first Tsar of Russia, replacing the 264-year-old Grand Duchy of Moscow with the Tsardom of Russia.[8] 1556 – Philip II becomes King of Spain.[9] 1572 – Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried and found guilty of treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England.[10] 1605 – The first edition of El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha (Book One of Don Quixote) by Miguel de Cervantes is published in Madrid, Spain. 1707 – The Scottish Parliament ratifies the Act of Union, paving the way for the creation of Great Britain.[11] 1757 – Forces of the Maratha Empire defeat a 5,000-strong army of the Durrani Empire in the Battle of Narela.[12] 1780 – American Revolutionary War: Battle of Cape St. Vincent.[13] 1786 – Virginia enacts the Statute for Religious Freedom authored by Thomas Jefferson.[14] 1809 – Peninsular War: The British defeat the French at the Battle of La Coruña. 1847 – John C. Frémont is appointed Governor of the new California Territory. 1862 – Hartley Colliery disaster: Two hundred and four men and boys killed in a mining disaster, prompting a change in UK law which henceforth required all collieries to have at least two independent means of escape.[15] 1878 – Russo-Turkish War (1877–78): Battle of Philippopolis: Captain Aleksandr Burago with a squadron of Russian Imperial army dragoons liberates Plovdiv from Ottoman rule. 1883 – The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act, establishing the United States Civil Service, is enacted by Congress.[16] 1900 – The United States Senate accepts the Anglo-German treaty of 1899 in which the United Kingdom renounces its claims to the Samoan islands. 1909 – Ernest Shackleton's expedition finds the magnetic South Pole.[17] 1919 – Nebraska becomes the 36th state to approve the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. With the necessary three-quarters of the states approving the amendment, Prohibition is constitutionally mandated in the United States one year later.[18] 1920 – The League of Nations holds its first council meeting in Paris, France. 1921 – The Marxist Left in Slovakia and the Transcarpathian Ukraine holds its founding congress in Ľubochňa. 1942 – Crash of TWA Flight 3, killing all 22 aboard, including film star Carole Lombard.[19] 1945 – Adolf Hitler moves into his underground bunker, the so-called Führerbunker. 1969 – Czech student Jan Palach commits suicide by self-immolation in Prague, Czechoslovakia, in protest against the Soviets' crushing of the Prague Spring the year before.[20] 1969 – Soviet spacecraft Soyuz 4 and Soyuz 5 perform the first-ever docking of manned spacecraft in orbit, the first-ever transfer of crew from one space vehicle to another, and the only time such a transfer was accomplished with a space walk. 1979 – The last Iranian Shah flees Iran with his family for good and relocates to Egypt.[21] 1991 – Coalition Forces go to war with Iraq, beginning the Gulf War. 1992 – El Salvador officials and rebel leaders sign the Chapultepec Peace Accords in Mexico City, Mexico ending the 12-year Salvadoran Civil War that claimed at least 75,000 lives. 1995 – An avalanche hits the Icelandic village Súðavík, destroying 25 homes and burying 26 people, 14 of whom died.[22] 2001 – Congolese President Laurent-Désiré Kabila is assassinated by one of his own bodyguards. 2001 – US President Bill Clinton awards former President Theodore Roosevelt a posthumous Medal of Honor for his service in the Spanish–American War. 2002 – The UN Security Council unanimously establishes an arms embargo and the freezing of assets of Osama bin Laden, al-Qaeda, and the remaining members of the Taliban. 2003 – The Space Shuttle Columbia takes off for mission STS-107 which would be its final one. Columbia disintegrated 16 days later on re-entry. 2006 – Ellen Johnson Sirleaf is sworn in as Liberia's new president. She becomes Africa's first female elected head of state.[23] 2016 – Thirty-three out of 126 freed hostages are injured and 23 killed in terrorist attacks in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso on a hotel and a nearby restaurant. 2018 – Myanmar police open fire on a group of ethnic Rakhine protesters, killing seven and wounding twelve.[24] 2020 – The first impeachment of Donald Trump formally moves into its trial phase in the United States Senate.[25] Holidays and observances Christian feast day: Pope Benjamin (Coptic) Berard of Carbio Blaise (Armenian Apostolic) Fursey Joseph Vaz Honoratus of Arles Pope Marcellus I Solemnity of Mary, Mother of God (Coptic Church) Titian of Oderzo Eve of Saint Anthony observed with ritual bonfires in San Bartolomé de Pinares January 16 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) National Religious Freedom Day (United States) Teacher's Day (Myanmar) Teachers' Day (Thailand)
  13. January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 350 days remain until the end of the year (351 in leap years). Events 69 – Otho seizes power in Rome, proclaiming himself Emperor of Rome,[1] beginning a reign of only three months. 1541 – King Francis I of France gives Jean-François Roberval a commission to settle the province of New France (Canada) and provide for the spread of the "Holy Catholic faith".[2] 1559 – Elizabeth I is crowned Queen of England in Westminster Abbey, London.[3] 1582 – Truce of Yam-Zapolsky: Russia cedes Livonia to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.[4] 1759 – The British Museum opens to the public.[5] 1777 – American Revolutionary War: New Connecticut (present-day Vermont) declares its independence.[6] 1782 – Superintendent of Finance Robert Morris addresses the U.S. Congress to recommend establishment of a national mint and decimal coinage.[7] 1815 – War of 1812: American frigate USS President, commanded by Commodore Stephen Decatur, is captured by a squadron of four British frigates. 1818 – A paper by David Brewster is read to the Royal Society, belatedly announcing his discovery of what we now call the biaxial class of doubly-refracting crystals. On the same day, Augustin-Jean Fresnel signs a "supplement" (submitted four days later) on reflection of polarized light. 1822 – Greek War of Independence: Demetrios Ypsilantis is elected president of the legislative assembly. 1865 – American Civil War: Fort Fisher in North Carolina falls to the Union, thus cutting off the last major seaport of the Confederacy.[8] 1867 – Forty people die when ice covering the boating lake at Regent's Park, London, collapses.[9] 1870 – A political cartoon for the first time symbolizes the Democratic Party with a donkey ("A Live Jackass Kicking a Dead Lion" by Thomas Nast for Harper's Weekly). 1876 – The first newspaper in Afrikaans, Die Afrikaanse Patriot, is published in Paarl. 1889 – The Coca-Cola Company, then known as the Pemberton Medicine Company, is incorporated in Atlanta. 1892 – James Naismith publishes the rules of basketball. 1908 – The Alpha Kappa Alpha sorority becomes the first Greek-letter organization founded and established by African American college women. 1910 – Construction ends on the Buffalo Bill Dam in Wyoming, United States, which was the highest dam in the world at the time, at 325 ft (99 m). 1911 – Palestinian Arabic-language Falastin newspaper founded.[10] 1919 – Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht, two of the most prominent socialists in Germany, are tortured and murdered by the Freikorps at the end of the Spartacist uprising. 1919 – Great Molasses Flood: A wave of molasses released from an exploding storage tank sweeps through Boston, Massachusetts, killing 21 and injuring 150. 1934 – The 8.0 Mw  Nepal–Bihar earthquake strikes Nepal and Bihar with a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI (Extreme), killing an estimated 6,000–10,700 people. 1936 – The first building to be completely covered in glass, built for the Owens-Illinois Glass Company, is completed in Toledo, Ohio. 1937 – Spanish Civil War: Nationalists and Republican both withdraw after suffering heavy losses, ending the Second Battle of the Corunna Road. 1943 – World War II: The Soviet counter-offensive at Voronezh begins. 1943 – The Pentagon is dedicated in Arlington, Virginia. 1947 – The Black Dahlia murder: the dismembered corpse of Elizabeth Short was found in Los Angeles. 1949 – Chinese Civil War: The Communist forces take over Tianjin from the Nationalist Government. 1962 – The Derveni papyrus, Europe's oldest surviving manuscript dating to 340 BC, is found in northern Greece. 1962 – Netherlands New Guinea Conflict: Indonesian Navy fast patrol boat RI Macan Tutul commanded by Commodore Yos Sudarso sunk in Arafura Sea by the Dutch Navy. 1966 – The First Nigerian Republic, led by Abubakar Tafawa Balewa is overthrown in a military coup d'état. 1967 – The first Super Bowl is played in Los Angeles. The Green Bay Packers defeat the Kansas City Chiefs 35–10. 1969 – The Soviet Union launches Soyuz 5. 1970 – Nigerian Civil War: Biafran rebels surrender following an unsuccessful 32-month fight for independence from Nigeria. 1970 – Muammar Gaddafi is proclaimed premier of Libya. 1973 – Vietnam War: Citing progress in peace negotiations, President Richard Nixon announces the suspension of offensive action in North Vietnam. 1975 – The Alvor Agreement is signed, ending the Angolan War of Independence and giving Angola independence from Portugal. 1976 – Gerald Ford's would-be assassin, Sara Jane Moore, is sentenced to life in prison. 1981 – Pope John Paul II receives a delegation from Solidarity (Polish trade union) at the Vatican led by Lech Wałęsa. 1991 – The United Nations deadline for the withdrawal of Iraqi forces from occupied Kuwait expires, preparing the way for the start of Operation Desert Storm. 1991 – Elizabeth II, in her capacity as Queen of Australia, signs letters patent allowing Australia to become the first Commonwealth realm to institute its own Victoria Cross in its honours system. 2001 – Wikipedia, a free wiki content encyclopedia, goes online.[11] 2005 – ESA's SMART-1 lunar orbiter discovers elements such as calcium, aluminum, silicon, iron, and other surface elements on the Moon. 2009 – US Airways Flight 1549 ditches safely in the Hudson River after the plane collides with birds less than two minutes after take-off. This becomes known as "The Miracle on the Hudson" as all 155 people on board were rescued. 2013 – A train carrying Egyptian Army recruits derails near Giza, Greater Cairo, killing 19 and injuring 120 others.[12] 2015 – The Swiss National Bank abandons the cap on the franc's value relative to the euro, causing turmoil in international financial markets.[13] 2016 – The Kenyan Army suffers its worst defeat ever in a battle with Al-Shabaab Islamic insurgents in El-Adde, Somalia. An estimated 150 Kenyan soldiers are killed in the battle. 2019 – Somali militants attack the DusitD2 hotel in Nairobi, Kenya killing at least 21 people and injuring 19.[14] 2019 – Theresa May's UK government suffers the biggest government defeat in modern times, when 432 MPs voting against the proposed European Union withdrawal agreement, giving her opponents a majority of 230.[15] Holidays and observances Arbor Day (Egypt) Armed Forces Day (Nigeria) Army Day (India) Christian feast day: Abeluzius (Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church) Arnold Janssen Francis Ferdinand de Capillas (one of Martyr Saints of China) Ita Our Lady of the Poor Macarius of Egypt (Western Christianity) Maurus and Placidus (Order of Saint Benedict) Paul the Hermit January 15 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Earliest day on which Martin Luther King Jr. Day can fall (the 15th being his birthday), while January 21 is the latest; celebrated on the third Monday in January. (United States) Earliest day on which Sinulog Festival can fall, while January 21 is the latest; celebrated on the third Sunday in January. (Philippines) John Chilembwe Day (Malawi) Korean Alphabet Day (North Korea) Ocean Duty Day (Indonesia) Sagichō at Tsurugaoka Hachimangū. (Kamakura, Japan) Teacher's Day (Venezuela) The second day of the sidereal winter solstice festivals in India (see January 14): Thai Pongal, Tamil harvest festival
  14. January 14 is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 351 days remain until the end of the year (352 in leap years). Events 1236 – King Henry III of England marries Eleanor of Provence.[1] 1301 – Andrew III of Hungary dies, ending the Árpád dynasty in Hungary.[2] 1343 – Arnošt of Pardubice becomes the last bishop of Prague and, subsequently, the first Archbishop of Prague. 1539 – Spain annexes Cuba. 1639 – The "Fundamental Orders", the first written constitution that created a government, is adopted in Connecticut.[3] 1761 – The Third Battle of Panipat is fought in India between the Afghans under Ahmad Shah Durrani and the Marathas. 1784 – American Revolutionary War: Ratification Day, United States - Congress ratifies the Treaty of Paris with Great Britain.[4] 1814 – Treaty of Kiel: Frederick VI of Denmark cedes the Kingdom of Norway to Charles XIII of Sweden in return for Pomerania.[5] 1822 – Greek War of Independence: Acrocorinth is captured by Theodoros Kolokotronis and Demetrios Ypsilantis. 1858 – Napoleon III of France escapes an assassination attempt made by Felice Orsini and his accomplices in Paris. 1907 – An earthquake in Kingston, Jamaica kills more than 1,000 people.[6] 1911 – Roald Amundsen's South Pole expedition makes landfall on the eastern edge of the Ross Ice Shelf. 1939 – Norway claims Queen Maud Land in Antarctica. 1943 – World War II: Japan begins Operation Ke, the successful operation to evacuate its forces from Guadalcanal during the Guadalcanal Campaign. 1943 – World War II: Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill begin the Casablanca Conference to discuss strategy and study the next phase of the war.[7] 1950 – The first prototype of the MiG-17 makes its maiden flight. 1952 – NBC's long-running morning news program Today debuts, with host Dave Garroway.[8] 1953 – Josip Broz Tito is inaugurated as the first President of Yugoslavia. 1954 – The Hudson Motor Car Company merges with Nash-Kelvinator Corporation forming the American Motors Corporation.[9] 1957 – Kripalu Maharaj was named fifth Jagadguru (world teacher) after giving seven days of speeches before 500 Hindu scholars. 1960 – The Reserve Bank of Australia, the country's central bank and banknote issuing authority, is established. 1967 – Counterculture of the 1960s: The Human Be-In takes place in San Francisco, California's Golden Gate Park, launching the Summer of Love.[10] 1969 – USS Enterprise fire: An accidental explosion aboard the USS Enterprise near Hawaii kills 28 people.[11] 1972 – Queen Margrethe II of Denmark ascends the throne, the first Queen of Denmark since 1412 and the first Danish monarch not named Frederick or Christian since 1513. 1973 – Elvis Presley's concert Aloha from Hawaii is broadcast live via satellite, and sets the record as the most watched broadcast by an individual entertainer in television history. 1993 – In Poland's worst peacetime maritime disaster, ferry MS Jan Heweliusz sinks off the coast of Rügen, drowning 55 passengers and crew; nine crew-members are saved. 2004 – The national flag of the Republic of Georgia, the so-called "five cross flag", is restored to official use after a hiatus of some 500 years. 2010 – Yemen declares an open war against the terrorist group al-Qaeda. 2011 – President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali of Tunisia seeks refuge in Saudi Arabia after a series of demonstrations against his regime, considered to be the birth of the Arab Spring. Holidays and observances Christian feast day: Barba'shmin Blessed Devasahayam Pillai (Latin Church) Divina Pastora (Barquisimeto) Eivind Berggrav (Lutheran) Felix of Nola Macrina the Elder Odoric of Pordenone January 14 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Defender of the Motherland Day (Uzbekistan) Feast of the Ass (Medieval Christianity) Flag Day (Georgia) National Forest Conservation Day (Thailand) Old New Year, and its related observance: Azhyrnykhua (Abkhazia) Yennayer (Berbers) Ratification Day (United States) Revolution and Youth Day (Tunisia) Sidereal winter solstice celebrations in South and Southeast Asian cultures; marking the transition of the Sun to Capricorn, and the first day of the six months Uttarayana period. (see April 14): Magh Bihu (Assam) Maghe Sankranti (Nepal) Maghi (Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh) Makar Sankranti (India) The first day of Pongal (Tamil Nadu) Uttarayan (Uttarakhand, Gujarat and Rajasthan) World Logic Day[40] (UNESCO)
  15. January 13 is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 352 days remain until the end of the year (353 in leap years). Events 532 – The Nika riots break out, during the racing season at the Hippodrome in Constantinople, as a result of discontent with the rule of the Emperor Justinian I.[1][2] 1435 – Sicut Dudum, forbidding the enslavement of the Guanche natives in Canary Islands by the Spanish, is promulgated by Pope Eugene IV. 1547 – Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, is sentenced to death for treason, on the grounds of having quartered his arms to make them similar to those of the King, Henry VIII of England.[3] 1793 – Nicolas Jean Hugon de Bassville, representative of Revolutionary France, lynched by a mob in Rome 1797 – French Revolutionary Wars: A naval battle between a French ship of the line and two British frigates off the coast of Brittany ends with the French vessel running aground, resulting in over 900 deaths. 1815 – War of 1812: British troops capture Fort Peter in St. Marys, Georgia, the only battle of the war to take place in the state. 1822 – The design of the Greek flag is adopted by the First National Assembly at Epidaurus. 1833 – United States President Andrew Jackson writes to Vice President Martin Van Buren expressing his opposition to South Carolina's defiance of federal authority in the Nullification Crisis. 1840 – The steamship Lexington burns and sinks four miles off the coast of Long Island with the loss of 139 lives. 1842 – Dr. William Brydon, an assistant surgeon in the British East India Company Army during the First Anglo-Afghan War, becomes famous for being the sole survivor of an army of 4,500 men and 12,000 camp followers when he reaches the safety of a garrison in Jalalabad, Afghanistan. 1847 – The Treaty of Cahuenga ends the Mexican–American War in California. 1849 – Establishment of the Colony of Vancouver Island. 1849 – Second Anglo-Sikh War – Battle of Chillianwala: British forces retreat from the Sikhs. 1879 – In Mozart Gardens Brooklyn Ada Anderson completed a great feat of pedestrianism - 2700 quarter miles in 2700 quarter hours, earning her $8000. 1888 – The National Geographic Society is founded in Washington, D.C. 1893 – The Independent Labour Party of the United Kingdom holds its first meeting. 1893 – U.S. Marines land in Honolulu, Hawaii from the USS Boston to prevent the queen from abrogating the Bayonet Constitution. 1895 – First Italo-Ethiopian War: the war's opening battle, the Battle of Coatit, occurs; it is an Italian victory. 1898 – Émile Zola's J'accuse…! exposes the Dreyfus affair. 1908 – The Rhoads Opera House fire in Boyertown, Pennsylvania kills 171 people. 1910 – The first public radio broadcast takes place; a live performance of the operas Cavalleria rusticana and Pagliacci are sent out over the airwaves from the Metropolitan Opera House in New York. 1915 – The 6.7 Mw  Avezzano earthquake shakes the Province of L'Aquila in Italy with a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI (Extreme), killing between 29,978 and 32,610. 1920 – The Reichstag Bloodbath of January 13, 1920, the bloodiest demonstration in German history.[4] [5] [6] 1935 – A plebiscite in Saarland shows that 90.3% of those voting wish to join Nazi Germany. 1939 – The Black Friday bushfires burn 20,000 square kilometers of land in Australia, claiming the lives of 71 people. 1942 – Henry Ford patents a soybean car, which is 30% lighter than a regular car.[7] 1942 – World War II: First use of an aircraft ejection seat by a German test pilot in a Heinkel He 280 jet fighter. 1950 – British submarine HMS Truculent collides with an oil tanker in the Thames Estuary, killing 64 men. 1950 – Finland forms diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China. 1951 – First Indochina War: The Battle of Vĩnh Yên begins. 1953 – An article appears in Pravda accusing some of the most prestigious and prominent doctors, mostly Jews, in the Soviet Union of taking part in a vast plot to poison members of the top Soviet political and military leadership. 1958 – The Moroccan Army of Liberation ambushes a Spanish patrol in the Battle of Edchera. 1963 – Coup d'état in Togo results in the assassination of president Sylvanus Olympio. 1964 – Anti-Muslim riots break out in Calcutta, in response to anti-Hindu riots in East Pakistan. About one hundred people are killed. 1964 – In Manchester, New Hampshire, fourteen-year-old Pamela Mason is murdered. Edward Coolidge is tried and convicted of the crime, but the conviction is set aside by the landmark Fourth Amendment case Coolidge v. New Hampshire (1971). 1966 – Robert C. Weaver becomes the first African American Cabinet member when he is appointed United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development. 1968 – Johnny Cash performs live at Folsom State Prison. 1972 – Prime Minister Kofi Abrefa Busia and President Edward Akufo-Addo of Ghana are ousted in a bloodless military coup by Colonel Ignatius Kutu Acheampong. 1977 – JAL Cargo Flight 3054, a Douglas DC-8 jet, crashes onto the runway during takeoff from Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport, killing five.[8] 1978 – United States Food and Drug Administration requires all blood donations to be labeled "paid" or "volunteer" donors. 1982 – Shortly after takeoff, Air Florida Flight 90, a Boeing 737 jet, crashes into Washington, D.C.'s 14th Street Bridge and falls into the Potomac River, killing 78 including four motorists. 1985 – A passenger train plunges into a ravine in Ethiopia, killing 428 in the worst railroad disaster in Africa. 1986 – A month-long violent struggle begins in Aden, South Yemen between supporters of Ali Nasir Muhammad and Abdul Fattah Ismail, resulting in thousands of casualties. 1988 – Lee Teng-hui becomes the first native Taiwanese President of the Republic of China. 1990 – Douglas Wilder becomes the first elected African American governor as he takes office as Governor of Virginia in Richmond, Virginia. 1991 – Soviet Union troops attack Lithuanian independence supporters in Vilnius, killing 14 people and wounding around 1000 others. 1993 – Space Shuttle program: Endeavour heads for space for the third time as STS-54 launches from the Kennedy Space Center. 1993 – The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is signed.[9] 1998 – Alfredo Ormando sets himself on fire in St. Peter's Square, protesting against homophobia. 2001 – An earthquake hits El Salvador, killing more than 800. 2012 – The passenger cruise ship Costa Concordia sinks off the coast of Italy due to the captain Francesco Schettino's negligence and irresponsibility. There are 32 confirmed deaths. 2018 – A false emergency alert warning of an impending missile strike in Hawaii caused widespread panic in the state. 2020 – Taal Volcano in the Philippines spews lava fountains while erupting in the crater. Holidays and observances Christian feast day: Blessed Veronica of Milan Elian Hilary of Poitiers Mungo St. Knut's Day or Tjugondag Knut, the last day of Christmas. (Sweden and Finland) January 13 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Constitution Day (Mongolia) Democracy Day (Cape Verde) Korean-American Day (Korean-American community, United States) Liberation Day (Togo) Old New Year's Eve (Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Serbia, Montenegro, Republic of Srpska, North Macedonia), and its related observances: Malanka (Ukraine, Russia, Belarus) Sidereal winter solstice's eve celebrations in South and Southeast Asian cultures; the last day of the six-month Dakshinayana period (see January 14): Bhogi (Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu) Lohri (Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh) Uruka (Assam) Stephen Foster Memorial Day (United States) Yennayer (Berbers)
  16. January 12 is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 353 days remain until the end of the year (354 in leap years). Events 475 – Byzantine Emperor Zeno is forced to flee his capital at Constantinople, and his general, Basiliscus gains control of the empire.[1] 1528 – Gustav I of Sweden is crowned King of Sweden, having already reigned since his election in June 1523.[2] 1554 – Bayinnaung, who would go on to assemble the largest empire in the history of Southeast Asia, is crowned King of Burma. 1616 – The city of Belém, Brazil is founded on the Amazon River delta, by Portuguese captain Francisco Caldeira Castelo Branco. 1808 – John Rennie's scheme to defend St Mary's Church, Reculver, founded in 669, from coastal erosion is abandoned in favour of demolition, despite the church being an exemplar of Anglo-Saxon architecture and sculpture. 1808 – The organizational meeting leading to the creation of the Wernerian Natural History Society, a former Scottish learned society, is held in Edinburgh. 1848 – The Palermo rising takes place in Sicily against the Bourbon Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.[3] 1866 – The Royal Aeronautical Society is formed in London. 1872 – Yohannes IV is crowned Emperor of Ethiopia in Axum, the first imperial coronation in that city in over 200 years.[4] 1895 – The National Trust is founded in the United Kingdom.[5] 1911 – The University of the Philippines College of Law is formally established; three future Philippine presidents are among the first enrollees. 1915 – The United States House of Representatives rejects a proposal to require states to give women the right to vote. 1916 – Both Oswald Boelcke and Max Immelmann, for achieving eight aerial victories each over Allied aircraft, receive the German Empire's highest military award, the Pour le Mérite as the first German aviators to earn it. 1918 – The Minnie Pit Disaster coal mining accident occurs in Halmer End, Staffordshire, in which 155 men and boys die.[6] 1932 – Hattie Caraway becomes the first woman elected to the United States Senate.[7] 1942 – World War II: United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt creates the National War Labor Board.[8] 1945 – World War II: The Red Army begins the Vistula–Oder Offensive. 1962 – Vietnam War: Operation Chopper, the first American combat mission in the war, takes place. 1964 – Rebels in Zanzibar begin a revolt known as the Zanzibar Revolution and proclaim a republic. 1966 – Lyndon B. Johnson states that the United States should stay in South Vietnam until Communist aggression there is ended. 1967 – Dr. James Bedford becomes the first person to be cryonically preserved with intent of future resuscitation. 1969 – The New York Jets of the American Football League defeat the Baltimore Colts of the National Football League to win Super Bowl III in what is considered to be one of the greatest upsets in sports history. 1970 – Biafra capitulates, ending the Nigerian Civil War. 1971 – The Harrisburg Seven: Rev. Philip Berrigan and five other activists are indicted on charges of conspiring to kidnap Henry Kissinger and of plotting to blow up the heating tunnels of federal buildings in Washington, D.C. 1976 – The United Nations Security Council votes 11–1 to allow the Palestine Liberation Organization to participate in a Security Council debate (without voting rights). 1986 – Space Shuttle program: Congressman Bill Nelson lifts off from Kennedy Space Center aboard Columbia on mission STS-61-C as a payload specialist. 1990 – A seven-day pogrom breaks out against the Armenian civilian population of Baku, Azerbaijan, during which Armenians were beaten, tortured, murdered, and expelled from the city. 1991 – Persian Gulf War: An act of the U.S. Congress authorizes the use of American military force to drive Iraq out of Kuwait. 1997 – Space Shuttle program: Atlantis launches from the Kennedy Space Center on mission STS-81 to the Russian space station Mir, carrying astronaut Jerry M. Linenger for a four month stay on board the station, replacing astronaut John E. Blaha.[9] 1998 – Nineteen European nations agree to forbid human cloning. 2001 – Downtown Disney opens to the public as part of the Disneyland Resort in Anaheim, California. 2004 – The world's largest ocean liner, RMS Queen Mary 2, makes its maiden voyage. 2005 – Deep Impact launches from Cape Canaveral on a Delta II rocket.[10] 2006 – A stampede during the Stoning of the Devil ritual on the last day at the Hajj in Mina, Saudi Arabia, kills at least 362 Muslim pilgrims. 2010 – An earthquake in Haiti occurs, killing between 220,000 and 300,000 people and destroying much of the capital Port-au-Prince.[11] 2012 – Violent protests occur in Bucharest, Romania, as two-day-old demonstrations continue against President Traian Băsescu's economic austerity measures. Clashes are reported in numerous Romanian cities between protesters and law enforcement officers. 2015 – Government raids kill 143 Boko Haram fighters in Kolofata, Cameroon. 2016 – Ten people are killed and 15 wounded in a bombing near the Blue Mosque in Istanbul. 2020 – Taal Volcano in the Philippines erupts, and kills 39 people. Holidays and observances Christian feast day: Aelred of Rievaulx Benedict Biscop Bernard of Corleone Marguerite Bourgeoys Tatiana January 12 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Earliest day on which Lee–Jackson Day can fall while January 18 is the latest, celebrated on the Friday before Martin Luther King Day. (Commonwealth of Virginia) Memorial Day (Turkmenistan) National Youth Day (India) Prosecutor General's Day (Russia) Zanzibar Revolution Day (Tanzania)
  17. January 11 is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 354 days remain until the end of the year (355 in leap years). Events 532 – Nika riots in Constantinople: A quarrel between supporters of different chariot teams—the Blues and the Greens—in the Hippodrome escalates into violence.[1] 630 – Conquest of Mecca: The prophet Muhammad and his followers conquer the city, Quraysh surrender.[2] 947 – Emperor Tai Zong of the Khitan-led Liao Dynasty invades the Later Jin, resulting in the destruction of the Later Jin. 1055 – Theodora is crowned empress of the Byzantine Empire.[3] 1158 – Vladislaus II, Duke of Bohemia becomes King of Bohemia. 1569 – First recorded lottery in England.[4] 1654 – Arauco War: A Spanish army is defeated by local Mapuche-Huilliches as it tries to cross Bueno River in Southern Chile.[5] 1693 – A powerful earthquake destroys parts of Sicily and Malta. 1759 – The first American life insurance company, the Corporation for Relief of Poor and Distressed Presbyterian Ministers and of the Poor and Distressed Widows and Children of the Presbyterian Ministers (now part of Unum Group), is incorporated in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.[6] 1779 – Ching-Thang Khomba is crowned King of Manipur. 1787 – William Herschel discovers Titania and Oberon, two moons of Uranus. 1805 – The Michigan Territory is created.[7] 1861 – American Civil War: Alabama secedes from the United States.[8] 1863 – American Civil War: Battle of Arkansas Post: General John McClernand and Admiral David Dixon Porter capture the Arkansas River for the Union. 1863 – American Civil War: CSS Alabama encounters and sinks the USS Hatteras off Galveston Lighthouse in Texas. 1879 – The Anglo-Zulu War begins. 1908 – Grand Canyon National Monument is created. 1912 – Immigrant textile workers in Lawrence, Massachusetts, go on strike when wages are reduced in response to a mandated shortening of the work week.[9] 1917 – The Kingsland munitions factory explosion occurs as a result of sabotage. 1922 – Leonard Thompson becomes the first person to be injected with insulin. 1923 – Occupation of the Ruhr: Troops from France and Belgium occupy the Ruhr area to force Germany to make its World War I reparation payments. 1927 – Louis B. Mayer, head of film studio Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM), announces the creation of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, at a banquet in Los Angeles, California.[10] 1935 – Amelia Earhart becomes the first person to fly solo from Hawaii to California. 1942 – World War II: Japanese forces capture Kuala Lumpur, the capital of the Federated Malay States. 1942 – World War II: Japanese forces attack Tarakan in Borneo, Netherlands Indies (Battle of Tarakan) 1943 – The Republic of China agrees to the Sino-British New Equal Treaty and the Sino-American New Equal Treaty. 1943 – Italian-American anarchist Carlo Tresca is assassinated in New York City. 1946 – Enver Hoxha, Secretary General of the Communist Party of Albania, declares the People's Republic of Albania with himself as head of state. 1949 – The first "networked" television broadcasts took place as KDKA-TV in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania goes on the air connecting the east coast and mid-west programming. 1957 – The African Convention is founded in Dakar, Senegal. 1961 – Throgs Neck Bridge over the East River, linking New York City's boroughs of The Bronx and Queens, opens to road traffic. 1962 – Cold War: While tied to its pier in Polyarny, the Soviet submarine B-37 is destroyed when fire breaks out in its torpedo compartment. 1962 – An avalanche on Huascarán in Peru causes around 4,000 deaths.[11] 1964 – Surgeon General of the United States Dr. Luther Terry, M.D., publishes the landmark report Smoking and Health: Report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General of the United States saying that smoking may be hazardous to health, sparking national and worldwide anti-smoking efforts. 1972 – East Pakistan renames itself Bangladesh. 1973 – Major League Baseball owners vote in approval of the American League adopting the designated hitter position. 1986 – The Gateway Bridge, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia is officially opened. 1994 – The Irish Government announces the end of a 15-year broadcasting ban on the IRA and its political arm Sinn Féin. 1998 – Over 100 people are killed in the Sidi-Hamed massacre in Algeria.[12] 2003 – Illinois Governor George Ryan commutes the death sentences of 167 prisoners on Illinois's death row based on the Jon Burge scandal. 2013 – One French soldier and 17 militants are killed in a failed attempt to free a French hostage in Bulo Marer, Somalia. Holidays and observances Children's Day (Tunisia) Christian feast day: Anastasius of Suppentonia (Roman Catholic) Leucius of Brindisi (Roman Catholic) Mary Slessor (Church of England) Paulinus II of Aquileia Pope Hyginus Theodosius the Cenobiarch Thomas of Cori Vitalis of Gaza (Roman Catholic) January 11 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Earliest day on which Triodion can fall, while February 14 is the latest; celebrated 70 days before Easter. (Eastern Orthodox) Eugenio María de Hostos Day (Puerto Rico) Independence Resistance Day (Morocco) Kagami biraki (Japan) National Human Trafficking Awareness Day (United States) Republic Day (Albania) Carmentalia (January 11th and January 15th), (Rome)
  18. January 10 is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 355 days remain until the end of the year (356 in leap years). Events 49 BC – Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon, signalling the start of civil war.[1] AD 9 – The Western Han dynasty ends when Wang Mang claims that the divine Mandate of Heaven called for the end of the dynasty and the beginning of his own, the Xin dynasty.[2] AD 69 – Lucius Calpurnius Piso Licinianus is appointed by Galba as deputy Roman Emperor.[3] 236 – Pope Fabian succeeds Anterus to become the twentieth pope of Rome.[4] 1072 – Robert Guiscard conquers Palermo in Sicily for the Normans.[5] 1430 – Philip the Good, the Duke of Burgundy, establishes the Order of the Golden Fleece, the most prestigious, exclusive, and expensive order of chivalry in the world.[6] 1475 – Stephen III of Moldavia defeats the Ottoman Empire at the Battle of Vaslui.[7] 1645 – Archbishop William Laud is beheaded for treason at the Tower of London.[8] 1776 – American Revolution: Thomas Paine publishes his pamphlet Common Sense.[9] 1791 – The Siege of Dunlap's Station begins near Cincinnati during the Northwest Indian War.[10] 1812 – The first steamboat on the Ohio River or the Mississippi River arrives in New Orleans, 82 days after departing from Pittsburgh.[11] 1861 – American Civil War: Florida becomes the third state to secede from the Union. 1863 – The Metropolitan Railway, the world's oldest underground railway, opens between Paddington and Farringdon, marking the beginning of the London Underground. 1870 – John D. Rockefeller incorporates Standard Oil.[12] 1901 – The first great Texas oil gusher is discovered at Spindletop in Beaumont, Texas. 1916 – World War I: In the Erzurum Offensive, Russia defeats the Ottoman Empire. 1920 – The Treaty of Versailles takes effect, officially ending World War I. 1920 – League of Nations Covenant enters into force. On January 16 the organization holds its first council meeting, in Paris. 1927 – Fritz Lang's futuristic film Metropolis is released in Germany.[13] 1941 – World War II: The Greek army captures Kleisoura. 1946 – The first General Assembly of the United Nations assembles in the Methodist Central Hall, Westminster. Fifty-one nations are represented.[14] 1946 – The United States Army Signal Corps successfully conducts Project Diana, bouncing radio waves off the Moon and receiving the reflected signals.[15] 1954 – BOAC Flight 781, a de Havilland DH.106 Comet 1, explodes and falls into the Tyrrhenian Sea, killing 35 people.[16] 1962 – Apollo program: NASA announces plans to build the C-5 rocket launch vehicle, which became known as the Saturn V Moon rocket, which launched every Apollo Moon mission. 1966 – Tashkent Declaration, a peace agreement between India and Pakistan signed that resolved the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965. 1972 – Sheikh Mujibur Rahman returns to the newly independent Bangladesh as president after spending over nine months in prison in Pakistan. 1981 – Salvadoran Civil War: The FMLN launches its first major offensive, gaining control of most of Morazán and Chalatenango departments 1984 – Holy See–United States relations: The United States and Holy See (Vatican City) re-establish full diplomatic relations after almost 117 years, overturning the United States Congress's 1867 ban on public funding for such a diplomatic envoy. 1985 – Sandinista Daniel Ortega becomes president of Nicaragua and vows to continue the transformation to socialism and alliance with the Soviet Union and Cuba; American policy continues to support the Contras in their revolt against the Nicaraguan government. 1990 – Time Warner is formed by the merger of Time Inc. and Warner Communications. 2000 – Crossair Flight 498, a Saab 340 aircraft, crashes in Niederhasli, Switzerland, after taking off from Zurich Airport, killing 13 people.[17] 2007 – A general strike begins in Guinea in an attempt to get President Lansana Conté to resign.[18] 2012 – A bombing at Jamrud in Pakistan, kills at least 30 people and injures 78 others.[19] 2013 – More than 100 people are killed and 270 injured in several bomb blasts in the Quetta area of Pakistan.[20] 2015 – A traffic accident between an oil tanker truck and passenger coach en route to Shikarpur from Karachi on the Pakistan National Highway Link Road near Gulshan-e-Hadeed, Karachi, killing at least 62 people.[21] Holidays and observances Christian feast day: Behnam, Sarah, and the Forty Martyrs (Armenian Apostolic Church)[88] Gregory of Nyssa Leonie Aviat Obadiah (Coptic Church) Peter Orseolo Pope Agatho (Roman Catholic) William Laud (Anglican Communion) William of Donjeon January 10 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Fête du Vodoun (Benin) Margaret Thatcher Day (Falkland Islands) Majority Rule Day (Bahamas)
  19. January 9 is the ninth day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 356 days remain until the end of the year (357 in leap years). Events 681 – Twelfth Council of Toledo: King Erwig of the Visigoths initiates a council in which he implements diverse measures against the Jews in Spain.[1] 1127 – Jin–Song Wars: Invading Jurchen soldiers from the Jin dynasty besiege and sack Bianjing (Kaifeng), the capital of the Song dynasty of China, and abduct Emperor Qinzong of Song and others, ending the Northern Song dynasty.[2] 1349 – The Jewish population of Basel, believed by the residents to be the cause of the ongoing Black Death, is rounded up and incinerated.[3] 1431 – The trial of Joan of Arc begins in Rouen.[4] 1760 – Ahmad Shah Durrani defeats the Marathas in the Battle of Barari Ghat.[5] 1787 – The nationally known image of the Black Nazarene in the Philippines was transferred from what is now Rizal Park to its present shrine in the minor basilica of Quiapo Church. This is annually commemorated through its Traslación (solemn transfer) in the streets of Manila and is attended by millions of devotees.[6][7][8] 1788 – Connecticut becomes the fifth state to ratify the United States Constitution.[9] 1792 – Treaty of Jassy between Russian and Ottoman Empire is signed.[10] 1793 – Jean-Pierre Blanchard becomes the first person to fly in a balloon in the United States.[11] 1799 – British Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger introduces an income tax of two shillings to the pound to raise funds for Great Britain's war effort in the Napoleonic Wars.[12] 1806 – Admiral Horatio Lord Nelson receives a state funeral and is interred in St Paul's Cathedral.[13] 1816 – Humphry Davy tests his safety lamp for miners at Hebburn Colliery.[14] 1822 – The Portuguese prince Pedro I of Brazil decides to stay in Brazil against the orders of the Portuguese King João VI, beginning the Brazilian independence process.[15] 1839 – The French Academy of Sciences announces the Daguerreotype photography process.[16] 1857 – The 7.9 Mw  Fort Tejon earthquake shakes Central and Southern California with a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX (Violent).[17] 1861 – American Civil War: "Star of the West" incident occurs near Charleston, South Carolina.[18] 1861 – Mississippi becomes the second state to secede from the Union before the outbreak of the American Civil War.[19] 1878 – Umberto I becomes King of Italy.[20] 1903 – Hallam Tennyson, 2nd Baron Tennyson, son of the poet Alfred Tennyson, becomes the second Governor-General of Australia.[21] 1909 – Ernest Shackleton, leading the Nimrod Expedition to the South Pole, plants the British flag 97 nautical miles (180 km; 112 mi) from the South Pole, the farthest anyone had ever reached at that time. 1914 – The Phi Beta Sigma fraternity is founded by African-American students at Howard University in Washington D.C., United States.[22] 1916 – World War I: The Battle of Gallipoli concludes with an Ottoman Empire victory when the last Allied forces are evacuated from the peninsula.[23] 1917 – World War I: The Battle of Rafa is fought near the Egyptian border with Palestine.[24] 1918 – Battle of Bear Valley: The last battle of the American Indian Wars.[25] 1921 – Greco-Turkish War: The First Battle of İnönü, the first battle of the war, begins near Eskişehir in Anatolia.[26] 1923 – Juan de la Cierva makes the first autogyro flight.[27] 1923 – Lithuanian residents of the Memel Territory rebel against the League of Nations' decision to leave the area as a mandated region under French control. 1927 – A fire at the Laurier Palace movie theatre in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, kills 78 children.[28] 1941 – World War II: First flight of the Avro Lancaster.[29] 1945 – World War II: The Sixth United States Army begins the invasion of Lingayen Gulf.[30] 1957 – British Prime Minister Sir Anthony Eden resigns from office following his failure to retake the Suez Canal from Egyptian sovereignty.[31] 1960 – President of Egypt Gamal Abdel Nasser opens construction on the Aswan Dam by detonating ten tons of dynamite to demolish twenty tons of granite on the east bank of the Nile.[32] 1961 – British authorities announce they have uncovered the Soviet Portland Spy Ring in London. 1964 – Martyrs' Day: Several Panamanian youths try to raise the Panamanian flag in the U.S.-controlled Panama Canal Zone, leading to fighting between U.S. military and Panamanian civilians. 1965 – The Mirzapur Cadet College formally opens for academic activities in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh).[citation needed] 1991 – Representatives from the United States and Iraq meet at the Geneva Peace Conference to try to find a peaceful resolution to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait.[33] 1992 – The Assembly of the Serb People in Bosnia and Herzegovina proclaims the creation of Republika Srpska, a new state within Yugoslavia. 1992 – The first discoveries of extrasolar planets are announced by astronomers Aleksander Wolszczan and Dale Frail. They discovered two planets orbiting the pulsar PSR 1257+12.[34] 1996 – First Chechen War: Chechen separatists launch a raid against the helicopter airfield and later a civilian hospital in the city of Kizlyar in the neighboring Dagestan, which turns into a massive hostage crisis involving thousands of civilians. 2004 – An inflatable boat carrying illegal Albanian emigrants stalls near the Karaburun Peninsula en route to Brindisi, Italy; exposure to the elements kills 28. This is the second deadliest marine disaster in Albanian history. [35] 2005 – Mahmoud Abbas wins the election to succeed Yasser Arafat as President of the Palestinian National Authority, replacing interim president Rawhi Fattouh.[36] 2005 – The Sudan People's Liberation Movement and the Government of Sudan sign the Comprehensive Peace Agreement to end the Second Sudanese Civil War.[37] 2007 – Apple CEO Steve Jobs introduces the original iPhone at a Macworld keynote in San Francisco.[38] 2011 – Iran Air Flight 277 crashes near Urmia in the northwest of the country, in icy conditions, killing 77 people.[39] 2014 – An explosion at a Mitsubishi Materials chemical plant in Yokkaichi, Japan, kills at least five people and injures 17 others..[40] 2015 – The perpetrators of the Charlie Hebdo shooting in Paris two days earlier are both killed after a hostage situation; a second hostage situation, related to the Charlie Hebdo shooting, occurs at a Jewish market in Vincennes.[41] 2015 – A mass poisoning at a funeral in Mozambique involving beer that was contaminated with Burkholderia gladioli leaves 75 dead and over 230 people ill.[42] Holidays and observances Christian feast day: Adrian of Canterbury Berhtwald Translation of the Black Nazarene (Manila, Philippines) Philip II, Metropolitan of Moscow Julia Chester Emery (Episcopal Church (USA)) Stephen (old calendar Eastern Orthodox) January 9 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Start of Hōonkō (Nishi Honganji) January 9–16 (Jōdo Shinshū Buddhism) Martyrs' Day (Panama) Non-Resident Indian Day (India)
  20. January 8 is the eighth day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 357 days remain until the end of the year (358 in leap years). Events 307 – Jin Huaidi becomes emperor of China in succession to his father, Jin Huidi, despite a challenge from his uncle, Sima Ying.[1] 871 – Alfred the Great leads a West Saxon army to repel an invasion by Danelaw Vikings.[2] 1297 – François Grimaldi, disguised as a monk, leads his men to capture the fortress protecting the Rock of Monaco, establishing his family as the rulers of Monaco.[3] 1454 – The papal bull Romanus Pontifex awards the Kingdom of Portugal exclusive trade and colonization rights to all of Africa south of Cape Bojador.[4] 1499 – Louis XII of France marries Anne of Brittany in accordance with a law set by his predecessor, Charles VIII.[5] 1547 – The first Lithuanian-language book, the Catechism of Martynas Mažvydas, is published in Königsberg.[6] 1735 – The premiere of George Frideric Handel's Ariodante takes place at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden.[7] 1746 – Second Jacobite rising: Bonnie Prince Charlie occupies Stirling.[8] 1790 – George Washington delivers the first State of the Union address in New York City.[9] 1806 – The Dutch Cape Colony in southern Africa becomes the British Cape Colony as a result of the Battle of Blaauwberg.[10] 1811 – An unsuccessful slave revolt is led by Charles Deslondes in the north American settlements of St. Charles and St. James, Louisiana.[11] 1815 – War of 1812: Battle of New Orleans: Andrew Jackson leads American forces in victory over the British.[12] 1828 – The Democratic Party of the United States is organized.[13] 1835 – US President Andrew Jackson announces a celebratory dinner after having reduced the United States national debt is zero for the only time.[14] 1863 – American Civil War: Second Battle of Springfield.[15] 1867 – The United States Congress passes the bill to allow African American men the right to vote in Washington, D.C.[16] 1877 – Crazy Horse and his warriors fight their last battle against the United States Cavalry at Wolf Mountain, Montana Territory.[17] 1889 – Herman Hollerith is issued US patent #395,791 for the 'Art of Applying Statistics' — his punched card calculator.[18] 1912 – The African National Congress is founded, under the name South African Native National Congress (SANNC).[19] 1918 – U.S. President Woodrow Wilson announces his "Fourteen Points" for the aftermath of World War I.[20] 1920 – The steel strike of 1919 ends in failure for the Amalgamated Association of Iron, Steel and Tin Workers labor union.[21] 1926 – Crown Prince Nguyễn Phúc Vĩnh Thuỵ is crowned king of Vietnam, the country's last monarch.[22] 1926 – Abdul-Aziz ibn Saud is crowned King of Hejaz.[23] 1936 – Kashf-e hijab decree is made and immediately enforced by Reza Shah, Iran's head of state, banning the wearing of Islamic veils in public.[24] 1940 – World War II: Britain introduces food rationing.[25] 1945 – World War II: Philippine Commonwealth troops under the Philippine Commonwealth Army units enter the province of Ilocos Sur in Northern Luzon and attack invading Japanese Imperial forces.[26] 1956 – Operation Auca: Five U.S. missionaries are killed by the Huaorani of Ecuador shortly after making first contact.[27] 1959 – Charles de Gaulle is proclaimed as the first President of the French Fifth Republic.[28] 1961 – In France a referendum supports Charles de Gaulle's policies in Algeria.[29] 1964 – President Lyndon B. Johnson declares a "War on Poverty" in the United States.[30] 1972 – Bowing to international pressure, President of Pakistan Zulfikar Ali Bhutto releases Bengali leader Sheikh Mujibur Rahman from prison, who had been arrested after declaring the independence of Bangladesh.[31] 1973 – Soviet space mission Luna 21 is launched.[32] 1973 – Watergate scandal: The trial of seven men accused of illegal entry into Democratic Party headquarters at Watergate begins. 1975 – Ella T. Grasso becomes Governor of Connecticut, the first woman to serve as a Governor in the United States other than by succeeding her husband.[33] 1977 – Three bombs explode in Moscow, Russia, Soviet Union, within 37 minutes, killing seven. The bombings are attributed to an Armenian separatist group.[34] 1981 – A local farmer reports a UFO sighting in Trans-en-Provence, France, claimed to be "perhaps the most completely and carefully documented sighting of all time".[35] 1982 – Breakup of the Bell System: In the United States, AT&T agrees to divest itself of twenty-two subdivisions.[33] 1989 – Kegworth air disaster: British Midland Flight 92, a Boeing 737-400, crashes into the M1 motorway, killing 47 of the 126 people on board.[36] 1994 – Russian cosmonaut Valeri Polyakov on Soyuz TM-18 leaves for Mir. He would stay on the space station until March 22, 1995, for a record 437 days in space.[37] 1996 – An Antonov An-32 cargo aircraft crashes into a crowded market in Kinshasa, Zaire, killing up to 223 people on the ground; two of six crew members are also killed.[38] 2002 – President of the United States George W. Bush signs into law the No Child Left Behind Act.[39] 2003 – Turkish Airlines Flight 634 crashes near Diyarbakır Airport, Turkey, killing the entire crew and 70 of the 75 passengers.[40] 2003 – Air Midwest Flight 5481 crashes at Charlotte-Douglas Airport, Charlotte, North Carolina, killing all 21 people on board.[41] 2004 – The RMS Queen Mary 2, then the largest ocean liner ever built, is christened by her namesake's granddaughter, Queen Elizabeth II.[42] 2005 – The nuclear sub USS San Francisco collides at full speed with an undersea mountain south of Guam. One man is killed, but the sub surfaces and is repaired.[43] 2009 – A 6.1-magnitude earthquake in northern Costa Rica kills 15 people and injures 32.[44] 2010 – Gunmen from an offshoot of the Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda attack a bus carrying the Togo national football team on its way to the 2010 Africa Cup of Nations, killing three people and injuring another nine.[45] 2011 – Sitting US Congresswoman Gabby Giffords is shot in the head along with 18 others in a mass shooting in Tucson, Arizona. Giffords survived the assassination attempt, but 6 others died, including John Roll, a federal judge.[46] 2016 – Joaquín Guzmán, widely regarded as the world's most powerful drug trafficker, is recaptured following his escape from a maximum security prison in Mexico.[47] 2020 – Ukraine International Airlines Flight 752 crashes immediately after takeoff at Tehran Imam Khomeini International Airport; all 176 on board are killed. The plane was shot down by an Iranian anti-aircraft missile.[48] Holidays and observances Babinden (Belarus, Russia) Christian feast day: Abo of Tiflis Apollinaris Claudius Blessed Eurosia Fabris Gauchito Gil (Folk Catholicism) Gudula Harriet Bedell (Episcopal Church (USA)) Lawrence Giustiniani Lucian of Beauvais Maximus of Pavia Our Lady of Prompt Succor (Roman Catholic Church) Pega (Anglican and Roman Catholic churches) Severinus of Noricum Thorfinn of Hamar January 8 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Commonwealth Day (Northern Mariana Islands) Earliest day on which Children's Day can fall, while January 14 is the latest; celebrated on the second Saturday in January. (Thailand) Earliest day on which Lee–Jackson Day can fall, while January 14 is the latest; celebrated on Friday before Martin Luther King Jr. Day. (Virginia) Typing Day (International observance)
  21. January 7 is the seventh day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 358 days remain until the end of the year (359 in leap years). Events 1325 – Alfonso IV becomes King of Portugal.[1] 1558 – French troops, led by Francis, Duke of Guise, take Calais, the last continental possession of England.[2] 1608 – Fire destroys Jamestown, Virginia.[3] 1610 – Galileo Galilei makes his first observation of the four Galilean moons: Ganymede, Callisto, Io and Europa, although he is not able to distinguish the last two until the following day.[4] 1738 – A peace treaty is signed between Peshwa Bajirao and Jai Singh II following Maratha victory in the Battle of Bhopal.[5] 1782 – The first American commercial bank, the Bank of North America, opens.[6] 1785 – Frenchman Jean-Pierre Blanchard and American John Jeffries travel from Dover, England, to Calais, France, in a gas balloon.[7] 1835 – HMS Beagle, with Charles Darwin on board, drops anchor off the Chonos Archipelago.[8] 1894 – Thomas Edison makes a kinetoscopic film of someone sneezing.[9] On the same day, his employee, William Kennedy Dickson, receives a patent for motion picture film.[10] 1904 – The distress signal "CQD" is established only to be replaced two years later by "SOS".[11] 1919 – Montenegrin guerrilla fighters rebel against the planned annexation of Montenegro by Serbia, but fail.[12] 1920 – The New York State Assembly refuses to seat five duly elected Socialist assemblymen.[13] 1922 – Dáil Éireann ratifies the Anglo-Irish Treaty by a 64–57 vote. 1927 – The first transatlantic telephone service is established from New York City to London.[14] 1928 – A disastrous flood of the River Thames kills 14 people and causes extensive damage to much of riverside London.[15] 1931 – Guy Menzies flies the first solo non-stop trans-Tasman flight (from Australia to New Zealand) in 11 hours and 45 minutes, crash-landing on New Zealand's west coast.[16] 1935 – Benito Mussolini and French Foreign minister Pierre Laval sign the Franco-Italian Agreement.[17] 1940 – Winter War: Battle of Raate Road: The Finnish 9th Division finally defeat the numerically superior Soviet forces on the Raate-Suomussalmi road.[18] 1948 – Kentucky Air National Guard pilot Thomas Mantell crashes while in pursuit of a supposed UFO.[19] 1954 – Georgetown-IBM experiment: The first public demonstration of a machine translation system is held in New York at the head office of IBM.[20] 1955 – Contralto Marian Anderson becomes the first person of color to perform at the Metropolitan Opera in Giuseppe Verdi's Un ballo in maschera.[21] 1959 – The United States recognizes the new Cuban government of Fidel Castro.[22] 1968 – Surveyor Program: Surveyor 7, the last spacecraft in the Surveyor series, lifts off from launch complex 36A, Cape Canaveral.[23] 1973 – In his second shooting spree of the week, Mark Essex fatally shoots seven people and wounds five others at Howard Johnson's Hotel in New Orleans, Louisiana, before being shot to death by police officers.[24] 1979 – Third Indochina War: Cambodian–Vietnamese War: Phnom Penh falls to the advancing Vietnamese troops, driving out Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge.[25] 1980 – U.S. President Jimmy Carter authorizes legislation giving $1.5 billion in loans to bail out the Chrysler Corporation.[26] 1984 – Brunei becomes the sixth member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).[27] 1985 – Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency launches Sakigake, Japan's first interplanetary spacecraft and the first deep space probe to be launched by any country other than the United States or the Soviet Union.[28] 1991 – Roger Lafontant, former leader of the Tonton Macoute in Haiti under François Duvalier, attempts a coup d'état, which ends in his arrest.[29] 1993 – The Fourth Republic of Ghana is inaugurated with Jerry Rawlings as President.[30] 1993 – Bosnian War: The Bosnian Army executes a surprise attack at the village of Kravica in Srebrenica.[31] 1994 – A British Aerospace Jetstream 41 operating as United Express Flight 6291 crashes in Gahanna, Ohio, killing five of the eight people on board.[32] 1999 – The Senate trial in the impeachment of U.S. President Bill Clinton begins.[33] 2012 – A hot air balloon crashes near Carterton, New Zealand, killing all 11 people on board.[34] 2015 – Two gunmen commit mass murder at the offices of Charlie Hebdo in Paris, shooting twelve people execution style, and wounding eleven others.[35] 2015 – A car bomb explodes outside a police college in the Yemeni capital Sana'a with at least 38 people reported dead and more than 63 injured.[36] 2020 – The 6.4Mw  2019–20 Puerto Rico earthquakes kill four and injure nine in southern Puerto Rico.[37] Holidays and observances Christian Feast Day: André Bessette (Canada) Canute Lavard Charles of Sezze Felix and Januarius Lucian of Antioch Raymond of Penyafort Synaxis of John the Forerunner & Baptist (Julian Calendar) January 7 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Christmas (Eastern Orthodox Churches and Oriental Orthodox Churches using the Julian Calendar, Rastafari) Christmas in Russia Christmas in Ukraine Remembrance Day of the Dead (Armenia) Distaff Day (medieval Europe) Earliest day on which Plough Monday can fall, while January 13 is the latest; celebrated on Monday after Epiphany (Europe). Nanakusa no sekku (Japan) Pioneer's Day (Liberia) Tricolour day or Festa del Tricolore (Italy) Victory from Genocide Day (Cambodia)
  22. January 6 is the sixth day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 359 days remain until the end of the year (360 in leap years). Events 1066 – Following the death of Edward the Confessor on the previous day, the Witan meets to confirm Harold Godwinson as the new King of England; Harold is crowned the same day, sparking a succession crisis that will eventually lead to the Norman conquest of England.[1] 1205 – Philip of Swabia undergoes a second coronation as King of the Romans.[2] 1322 – Stephen Uroš III is crowned King of Serbia, having defeated his half-brother Stefan Konstantin in battle. His son is crowned "young king" in the same ceremony.[3] 1355 – Charles IV of Bohemia is crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy as King of Italy in Milan.[4] 1449 – Constantine XI is crowned Byzantine Emperor at Mystras.[5] 1492 – The Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella enter Granada at the conclusion of the Granada War.[6] 1536 – The first European school of higher learning in the Americas, Colegio de Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco, is founded by Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza and Bishop Juan de Zumárraga in Mexico City.[7] 1540 – King Henry VIII of England marries Anne of Cleves.[8] 1579 – The Union of Arras unites the southern Netherlands under the Duke of Parma (Ottavio Farnese), governor in the name of King Philip II of Spain.[9] 1641 – Arauco War: The first Parliament of Quillín is celebrated, putting a temporary hold on hostilities between Mapuches and Spanish in Chile.[10] 1661 – English Restoration: The Fifth Monarchists unsuccessfully attempt to seize control of London, England. The revolt is suppressed after a few days.[11] 1721 – The Committee of Inquiry on the South Sea Bubble publishes its findings, revealing details of fraud among company directors and corrupt politicians.[12] 1781 – In the Battle of Jersey, the British defeat the last attempt by France to invade Jersey in the Channel Islands.[13] 1809 – Combined British, Portuguese and colonial Brazilian forces begin the Invasion of Cayenne during the Napoleonic Wars.[14] 1838 – Alfred Vail and colleagues demonstrate a telegraph system using dots and dashes (this is the forerunner of Morse code).[15] 1839 – The Night of the Big Wind, the most damaging storm in 300 years, sweeps across Ireland, damaging or destroying more than 20% of the houses in Dublin.[16] 1847 – Samuel Colt obtains his first contract for the sale of revolver pistols to the United States government.[17] 1870 – The inauguration of the Musikverein in Vienna, Austria.[18] 1893 – The Washington National Cathedral is chartered by Congress.[19] The charter is signed by President Benjamin Harrison. 1900 – Second Boer War: Having already besieged the fortress at Ladysmith, Boer forces attack it, but are driven back by British defenders.[20] 1907 – Maria Montessori opens her first school and daycare center for working class children in Rome, Italy.[21] 1912 – New Mexico is admitted to the Union as the 47th U.S. state.[22] 1912 – German geophysicist Alfred Wegener first presents his theory of continental drift.[23] 1929 – King Alexander of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes suspends his country's constitution (the January 6th Dictatorship).[24] 1929 – Mother Teresa arrives by sea in Calcutta, India, to begin her work among India's poorest and sick people.[25] 1930 – Clessie Cummins arrives at the National Automobile Show in New York City, having driven a car powered by one of his diesel engines from Indianapolis.[26] 1941 – United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt delivers his Four Freedoms speech in the State of the Union address.[27] 1946 – The first general election ever in Vietnam is held.[28] 1947 – Pan American Airlines becomes the first commercial airline to offer a round-the-world ticket.[29] 1950 – The United Kingdom recognizes the People's Republic of China.[30] The Republic of China severs diplomatic relations with the UK in response. 1951 – Korean War: Beginning of the Ganghwa massacre, in the course of which an estimated 200–1,300 South Korean communist sympathizers are slaughtered.[31] 1960 – National Airlines Flight 2511 is destroyed in mid-air by a bomb, while en route from New York City to Miami.[32] 1960 – The Associations Law comes into force in Iraq, allowing registration of political parties.[33] 1967 – Vietnam War: United States Marine Corps and ARVN troops launch "Operation Deckhouse Five" in the Mekong River delta.[34] 1974 – In response to the 1973 oil crisis, daylight saving time commences nearly four months early in the United States.[35] 1989 – Satwant Singh and Kehar Singh are sentenced to death for conspiracy in the assassination of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi; the two men are executed the same day.[36] 1992 – President of Georgia Zviad Gamsakhurdia flees the country as a result of the military coup.[37] 1993 – Indian Border Security Force units kill 55 Kashmiri civilians in Sopore, Jammu and Kashmir, in revenge after militants ambushed a BSF patrol.[38] 1993 – Four people are killed when Lufthansa CityLine Flight 5634 crashes on approach to Charles de Gaulle Airport in Roissy-en-France, France.[39] 1994 – American figure skater Nancy Kerrigan is attacked and injured by an assailant hired by her rival Tonya Harding's ex-husband during the U.S. Figure Skating Championships that they were both taking part in.[40] 1995 – A chemical fire in an apartment complex in Manila, Philippines, leads to the discovery of plans for Project Bojinka, a mass-terrorist attack.[41] 2005 – American Civil Rights Movement: Edgar Ray Killen is indicted for the 1964 murders of Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner.[42] 2005 – A train collision in Graniteville, South Carolina, United States, releases about 60 tons of chlorine gas.[43] 2012 – Twenty-six people are killed and 63 wounded when a suicide bomber blows himself up at a police station in Damascus.[44] 2017 – Five people are killed and six others injured in a mass shooting at Fort Lauderdale–Hollywood International Airport in Broward County, Florida.[45] 2019 – Forty people are killed in a gold mine collapse in Badakhshan province, in northern Afghanistan.[46] Holidays and observances Armed Forces Day (Iraq) Christian Feast day: André Bessette (Roman Catholic Church)[265] January 6 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Christmas: Christmas (Armenian Apostolic Church) Christmas Eve (Russia) Christmas Eve (Ukraine) Christmas Eve (Bosnia and Herzegovina) Christmas Eve (North Macedonia) Epiphany or Three Kings' Day (Western Christianity) or Theophany (Eastern Christianity), and its related observances: Befana Day (Italy) Little Christmas (Ireland) Þrettándinn (Iceland) Three Wise Men Day Pathet Lao Day (Laos)
  23. January 5 is the fifth day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 360 days remain until the end of the year (361 in leap years). Events 1477 – Battle of Nancy: Charles the Bold is defeated and killed in a conflict with René II, Duke of Lorraine; the Burgundy subsequently becomes part of France.[1] 1675 – Battle of Colmar: The French army beats Brandenburg.[2] 1757 – Louis XV of France survives an assassination attempt by Robert-François Damiens, the last person to be executed in France by drawing and quartering, the traditional and gruesome form of capital punishment used for regicides.[3] 1781 – American Revolutionary War: Richmond, Virginia, is burned by British naval forces led by Benedict Arnold.[4] 1875 – The Palais Garnier, one of the most famous opera houses in the world, is inaugurated in Paris.[5] 1895 – Dreyfus affair: French army officer Alfred Dreyfus is stripped of his rank and sentenced to life imprisonment on Devil's Island.[6] 1911 – Kappa Alpha Psi, the world's third oldest and largest black fraternity, is founded at Indiana University.[7] 1912 – The 6th All-Russian Conference of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (Prague Party Conference) opens. In the course of the conference, Vladimir Lenin and his supporters break from the rest of the party to form the Bolshevik movement.[8] 1913 – First Balkan War: The Battle of Lemnos begins; Greek admiral Pavlos Kountouriotis forces the Turkish fleet to retreat to its base within the Dardanelles, from which it did not venture for the rest of the war.[9] 1914 – The Ford Motor Company announces an eight-hour workday and minimum daily wage of $5 in salary plus bonuses.[10] 1919 – The German Workers' Party, which would become the Nazi Party, is founded in Munich.[11] 1925 – Nellie Tayloe Ross of Wyoming becomes the first female governor in the United States.[12] 1933 – Construction of the Golden Gate Bridge begins in San Francisco Bay.[13] 1941 – 37-year-old pilot Amy Johnson, the first woman to fly solo from London to Australia, disappears after bailing out of her plane over the River Thames, and is presumed dead.[14] 1944 – The Daily Mail becomes the first major London newspaper to be published on both sides of the Atlantic.[15] 1945 – The Soviet Union recognizes the new pro-Soviet Provisional Government of the Republic of Poland.[16] 1949 – In his "State of the Union" address, United States President Harry S. Truman unveils his Fair Deal program.[17] 1950 – In the Sverdlovsk air disaster, all 19 of those on board are killed, including almost the entire national ice hockey team (VVS Moscow) of the Soviet Air Force – 11 players, as well as a team doctor and a masseur.[18] 1953 – The play Waiting for Godot by Samuel Beckett receives its première in Paris.[19] 1957 – In a speech given to the United States Congress, United States President Dwight D. Eisenhower announces the establishment of what will later be called the Eisenhower Doctrine.[20] 1968 – Alexander Dubček comes to power in Czechoslovakia, effectively beginning the "Prague Spring".[21] 1969 – The Venera 5 space probe is launched at 06:28:08 UTC[22] from Baikonur.[23][24] 1970 – The 7.1 Mw  Tonghai earthquake shakes Tonghai County, Yunnan province, China, with a maximum Mercalli intensity of X (Extreme). Between 10,000 and 15,000 people are known to have been killed and about another 26,000 are injured.[25] 1974 – The warmest reliably measured temperature within the Antarctic Circle, of +59 °F (+15 °C), is recorded at Vanda Station.[26] 1975 – The Tasman Bridge in Tasmania, Australia, is struck by the bulk ore carrier Lake Illawarra, killing twelve people.[27] 1976 – The Khmer Rouge proclaim the Constitution of Democratic Kampuchea. 1976 – The Troubles: Gunmen shoot dead ten Protestant civilians after stopping their minibus at Kingsmill in County Armagh, Northern Ireland, UK, allegedly as retaliation for a string of attacks on Catholic civilians in the area by Loyalists, particularly the killing of six Catholics the night before.[28] 1991 – Georgian forces enter Tskhinvali, the capital of South Ossetia, Georgia, opening the 1991–92 South Ossetia War.[29] 1991 – Somali Civil War: The United States Embassy to Somalia in Mogadishu is evacuated by helicopter airlift days after the outbreak of violence in Mogadishu.[30] 1993 – The oil tanker MV Braer runs aground on the coast of the Shetland Islands, spilling 84,700 tons of crude oil.[31] 2005 – The dwarf planet Eris is discovered by Palomar Observatory-based astronomers, later motivating the International Astronomical Union (IAU) to define the term planet for the first time. [32] 2014 – A launch of the communication satellite GSAT-14 aboard the GSLV MK.II D5 marks the first successful flight of an Indian cryogenic engine.[33] Holidays and observances Christian Feast day: Charles of Mount Argus[269] John Neumann (Catholic Church)[270] Pope Telesphorus[271] Simeon Stylites (Latin Church)[272] January 5 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Harbin International Ice and Snow Sculpture Festival (Harbin, China)[273] Joma Shinji (Japan)[274] National Bird Day (United States)[275] The Twelfth day of Christmas and the Twelfth Night of Christmas. (Western Christianity)[276]
  24. January 4 is the fourth day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 361 days remain until the end of the year (362 in leap years). Events 46 BC – Julius Caesar fights Titus Labienus in the Battle of Ruspina.[1] 871 – Battle of Reading: Æthelred of Wessex and his brother Alfred are defeated by a Danish invasion army.[2] 1649 – English Civil War: The Rump Parliament votes to put Charles I on trial.[3] 1717 – The Netherlands, Great Britain, and France sign the Triple Alliance[4] in an attempt to maintain the Treaty of Utrecht; Britain having signed a preliminary alliance with France on November 28 (November 17, 1716). 1762 – Great Britain declares war on Spain, thus entering the Seven Years' War.[5] 1798 – Constantine Hangerli arrives in Bucharest, Wallachia, as its new Prince, invested by the Ottoman Empire.[6] 1853 – After having been kidnapped and sold into slavery in the American South, Solomon Northup regains his freedom; his memoir Twelve Years a Slave later becomes a national bestseller.[7] 1854 – The McDonald Islands are discovered by Captain William McDonald aboard the Samarang.[8] 1863 – The New Apostolic Church, a Christian and chiliastic church, is established in Hamburg, Germany.[9] 1878 – Russo-Turkish War (1877–78): Sofia is liberated from Ottoman rule[10] and designated the capital of Liberated Bulgaria. 1884 – The Fabian Society is founded in London, United Kingdom.[11] 1885 – Sino-French War: French troops under General Oscar de Négrier defeat a numerically superior Qing force at Núi Bop in northern Vietnam.[12] 1896 – Utah is admitted as the 45th U.S. state.[13] 1903 – Topsy, an elephant, is electrocuted by the owners of Luna Park, Coney Island. The Edison film company records the film Electrocuting an Elephant of Topsy's death.[14] 1912 – The Scout Association is incorporated throughout the British Empire by royal charter.[15] 1918 – The Finnish Declaration of Independence is recognized by Russia, Sweden, Germany and France.[16] 1944 – World War II: Operation Carpetbagger, involving the dropping of arms and supplies to resistance fighters in Europe, begins.[17] 1948 – Burma gains its independence from the United Kingdom becoming an independent republic,[18] named the Union of Burma, with Sao Shwe Thaik as its first President and U Nu its first Prime Minister. 1951 – Korean War: Chinese and North Korean forces capture Seoul.[19] 1956 – The Greek National Radical Union is formed by Konstantinos Karamanlis.[20] 1958 – Sputnik 1, the first artificial Earth satellite, launched by the Soviet Union in 1957, falls to Earth from orbit.[21] 1959 – Luna 1 becomes the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of the Moon.[22] 1972 – Rose Heilbron becomes the first female judge to sit at the Old Bailey in London, UK.[23] 1976 – The Troubles: The Ulster Volunteer Force shoots dead six Irish Catholic civilians in County Armagh, Northern Ireland. The next day, gunmen would shoot dead ten Protestant civilians nearby in retaliation.[24] 1987 – The Maryland train collision: An Amtrak train en route to Boston from Washington, D.C., collides with Conrail engines in Chase, Maryland, United States, killing 16 people.[25] 1989 – Second Gulf of Sidra incident: A pair of Libyan MiG-23 "Floggers" are shot down by a pair of US Navy F-14 Tomcats during an air-to-air confrontation.[26] 1990 – In Pakistan's deadliest train accident an overloaded passenger train collides with an empty freight train, resulting in 307 deaths and 700 injuries.[27] 1998 – A massive ice storm hits eastern Canada and the northeastern United States, continuing through January 10 and causing widespread destruction.[28] 1999 – Former professional wrestler Jesse Ventura is sworn in as governor of Minnesota, United States.[29] 2004 – Spirit, a NASA Mars rover, lands successfully on Mars at 04:35 UTC.[30] 2004 – Mikheil Saakashvili is elected President of Georgia following the November 2003 Rose Revolution.[31] 2006 – Ehud Olmert becomes acting Prime Minister of Israel after the incumbent, Ariel Sharon, suffers a second, apparently more serious stroke.[32] 2007 – The 110th United States Congress convenes, electing Nancy Pelosi as the first female Speaker of the House in U.S. history.[33] 2010 – The Burj Khalifa, the current tallest building in the world, officially opens in Dubai.[34] 2013 – A gunman kills eight people in a house-to-house rampage in Kawit, Cavite, Philippines.[35] 2018 – Hennenman–Kroonstad train crash: A passenger train operated by Shosholoza Meyl collides with a truck on a level crossing at Geneva Station between Hennenman and Kroonstad, Free State, South Africa. Twenty people are killed and 260 injured. Holidays and observances Christian feast day: Angela of Foligno[254] Elizabeth Ann Seton[255] Ferréol of Uzès[256] Mavilus[257] Pharaildis of Ghent[258] Rigobert[259] January 4 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) The eleventh of the Twelve Days of Christmas. (Western Christianity)[260] Independence Day (Myanmar), celebrates the independence of Myanmar from the United Kingdom in 1948.[261] Colonial Martyrs Repression Day (Angola)[262] Day of the Martyrs (Democratic Republic of the Congo)[263] Ogoni Day (Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People)[264] Tokyo Dome Show: The annual Wrestle Kingdom event run by New Japan Pro Wrestling[265] World Braille Day[266]
  25. December 3 is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 28 days remain until the end of the year. Events 915 – Pope John X crowns Berengar I of Italy as Holy Roman Emperor.[1] 1775 – USS Alfred becomes the first vessel to fly the Grand Union Flag (the precursor to the Stars and Stripes); the flag is hoisted by John Paul Jones.[2] 1799 – War of the Second Coalition: Battle of Wiesloch: Austrian Lieutenant Field Marshal Anton Sztáray defeats the French at Wiesloch.[3] 1800 – War of the Second Coalition: Battle of Hohenlinden: French General Moreau decisively defeats the Archduke John of Austria near Munich. Coupled with First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte's earlier victory at Marengo, this will force the Austrians to sign an armistice and end the war.[4] 1800 – United States presidential election: The Electoral College casts votes for president and vice president that resulted in a tie between Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr. 1818 – Illinois becomes the 21st U.S. state. 1834 – The Zollverein (German Customs Union) begins the first regular census in Germany. 1854 – Battle of the Eureka Stockade: More than 20 gold miners at Ballarat, Victoria, are killed by state troopers in an uprising over mining licences. 1898 – The Duquesne Country and Athletic Club defeats an all-star collection of early football players 16–0, in what is considered to be the very first all-star game for professional American football. 1901 – In a State of the Union message, U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt delivers a 20,000-word speech to the House of Representatives asking Congress to curb the power of trusts "within reasonable limits". 1904 – The Jovian moon Himalia is discovered by Charles Dillon Perrine at California's Lick Observatory. 1910 – Modern neon lighting is first demonstrated by Georges Claude at the Paris Motor Show. 1912 – Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro, and Serbia (the Balkan League) sign an armistice with the Ottoman Empire, temporarily halting the First Balkan War. (The armistice will expire on February 3, 1913, and hostilities will resume.) 1919 – After nearly 20 years of planning and construction, including two collapses causing 89 deaths, the Quebec Bridge opens to traffic. 1920 – Following more than a month of Turkish–Armenian War, the Turkish-dictated Treaty of Alexandropol is concluded. 1929 – President Herbert Hoover delivers his first State of the Union message to Congress. It is presented in the form of a written message rather than a speech.[5] 1944 – Greek Civil War: Fighting breaks out in Athens between the ELAS and government forces supported by the British Army. 1959 – The current flag of Singapore is adopted, six months after Singapore became self-governing within the British Empire. 1960 – The musical Camelot debuts at the Majestic Theatre on Broadway. It will become associated with the Kennedy administration. 1967 – At Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, a transplant team headed by Christiaan Barnard carries out the first heart transplant on a human (53-year-old Louis Washkansky). 1971 – Indo-Pakistani War of 1971: Pakistan launches a pre-emptive strike against India and a full-scale war begins. 1973 – Pioneer program: Pioneer 10 sends back the first close-up images of Jupiter. 1979 – In Cincinnati, 11 fans are suffocated in a crush for seats on the concourse outside Riverfront Coliseum before a Who concert. 1979 – Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini becomes the first Supreme Leader of Iran. 1982 – A soil sample is taken from Times Beach, Missouri, that will be found to contain 300 times the safe level of dioxin. 1984 – Bhopal disaster: A methyl isocyanate leak from a Union Carbide pesticide plant in Bhopal, India, kills more than 3,800 people outright and injures 150,000–600,000 others (some 6,000 of whom would later die from their injuries) in one of the worst industrial disasters in history. 1989 – In a meeting off the coast of Malta, U.S. President George H. W. Bush and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev release statements indicating that the Cold War between NATO and the Warsaw Pact may be coming to an end. 1992 – The Greek oil tanker Aegean Sea, carrying 80,000 tonnes of crude oil, runs aground in a storm while approaching A Coruña, Spain, and spills much of its cargo. 1992 – A test engineer for Sema Group uses a personal computer to send the world's first text message via the Vodafone network to the phone of a colleague. 1994 – Taiwan holds its first full local elections; James Soong elected as the first and only direct elected Governor of Taiwan, Chen Shui-bian became the first direct elected Mayor of Taipei, Wu Den-yih became the first directed Mayor of Kaohsiung. 1995 – Cameroon Airlines Flight 3701 crashes on approach to Douala International Airport in Douala, Cameroon, killing 71 of the 76 people on board.[6] 1997 – In Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, representatives from 121 countries sign the Ottawa Treaty prohibiting manufacture and deployment of anti-personnel landmines. The United States, People's Republic of China, and Russia do not sign the treaty, however. 1999 – NASA loses radio contact with the Mars Polar Lander moments before the spacecraft enters the Martian atmosphere. 2005 – XCOR Aerospace makes the first manned rocket aircraft delivery of U.S. Mail in Kern County, California. 2007 – Winter storms cause the Chehalis River to flood many cities in Lewis County, Washington, and close a 20-mile portion of Interstate 5 for several days. At least eight deaths and billions of dollars in damages are blamed on the floods. 2009 – A suicide bombing at a hotel in Mogadishu, Somalia, kills 25 people, including three ministers of the Transitional Federal Government. 2012 – At least 475 people are killed after Typhoon Bopha makes landfall in the Philippines. 2014 – The Japanese space agency, JAXA, launches the space explorer Hayabusa2 from the Tanegashima Space Center on a six-year round trip mission to an asteroid to collect rock samples. Holidays and observances Christian feast day: Abbo of Auxerre Pope Abraham of Alexandria (Coptic, 6 Koiak)) Adrian (Ethernan) Birinus Cassian of Tangier Emma (of Lesum or of Bremen) Francis Xavier Blessed Johann Nepomuk von Tschiderer zu Gleifheim Zephaniah December 3 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Doctors' Day (Cuba) International Day of Persons with Disabilities
  26. January 2 is the second day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 363 days remain until the end of the year (364 in leap years). Events AD 69 – The Roman legions in Germania Superior refuse to swear loyalty to Galba. They rebel and proclaim Vitellius as emperor.[1] 366 – The Alemanni cross the frozen Rhine in large numbers, invading the Roman Empire.[2] 533 – Mercurius becomes Pope John II, the first pope to adopt a new name upon elevation to the papacy.[3] 1492 – Reconquista: The Emirate of Granada, the last Moorish stronghold in Spain, surrenders.[4] 1680 – Trunajaya rebellion: Amangkurat II of Mataram and his bodyguards execute the rebel leader Trunajaya.[5] a month after the rebel leader was captured by the Dutch East India Company. 1777 – American Revolutionary War: American forces under the command of George Washington repulsed a British attack at the Battle of the Assunpink Creek near Trenton, New Jersey.[6] 1788 – Georgia becomes the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution.[7] 1791 – Big Bottom massacre in the Ohio Country, North America, marking the beginning of the Northwest Indian War.[8] 1818 – The British Institution of Civil Engineers is founded by a group of six engineers; Thomas Telford would later become its first president.[9] 1833 – Captain James Onslow, in the Clio, arrives at Port Egmont to reassert British sovereignty over the Falkland Islands.[10] 1865 – Uruguayan War: The Siege of Paysandú ends as the Brazilians and Coloradans capture Paysandú, Uruguay.[11] 1900 – American statesman and diplomat John Hay announces the Open Door Policy to promote trade with China.[12] 1920 – The second Palmer Raid, ordered by the US Department of Justice, results in 6,000 suspected communists and anarchists being arrested and held without trial.[13] 1941 – World War II: The Cardiff Blitz severely damages the cathedral in Cardiff, Wales.[14] 1942 – The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) obtains the conviction of 33 members of a German spy ring headed by Fritz Joubert Duquesne in the largest espionage case in United States history—the Duquesne Spy Ring.[15] 1942 – World War II: Manila is captured by Japanese forces, enabling them to control the Philippines.[16] 1949 – Luis Muñoz Marín is inaugurated as the first democratically elected Governor of Puerto Rico.[17] 1954 – India establishes its highest civilian awards, the Bharat Ratna and the Padma Vibhushan.[18] 1955 – Following the assassination of the Panamanian president José Antonio Remón Cantera, his deputy, José Ramón Guizado, takes power, but is quickly deposed after his involvement in Cantera's death is discovered.[19] 1959 – Luna 1, the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of the Moon and to orbit the Sun, is launched by the Soviet Union.[20] 1963 – Vietnam War: The Viet Cong wins its first major victory, at the Battle of Ap Bac.[21] 1967 – Ronald Reagan, past movie actor and future President of the United States, is sworn in as Governor of California.[22] 1971 – The second Ibrox disaster kills 66 fans at a Rangers-Celtic association football (soccer) match.[23] 1974 – United States President Richard Nixon signs a bill lowering the maximum U.S. speed limit to 55 MPH in order to conserve gasoline during an OPEC embargo.[24] 1975 – At the opening of a new railway line, a bomb blast at Samastipur, Bihar, India, fatally wounds Lalit Narayan Mishra, Minister of Railways.[25] 1975 – The Federal Rules of Evidence are approved by the United States Congress.[26] 1976 – The Gale of January 1976 begins, resulting in coastal flooding around the southern North Sea coasts, affecting countries from Ireland to Yugoslavia and causing at least 82 deaths and US$1.3 billion in damage.[27] 1978 – On the orders of the President of Pakistan, Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, paramilitary forces opened fire on peaceful protesting workers in Multan, Pakistan; it is known as 1978 massacre at Multan Colony Textile Mills.[28] 1981 – One of the largest investigations by a British police force ends when serial killer Peter Sutcliffe, the "Yorkshire Ripper", is arrested in Sheffield, South Yorkshire.[29] 1991 – Sharon Pratt Kelly becomes the first African American woman mayor of a major city and first woman Mayor of the District of Columbia.[30] 1993 – Sri Lankan Civil War: The Sri Lanka Navy kill 35–100 civilians on the Jaffna Lagoon.[31] 2004 – Stardust successfully flies past Comet Wild 2, collecting samples that are returned to Earth.[32] Holidays and observances Ancestry Day (Haiti) Berchtold's Day (Switzerland and Liechtenstein) Carnival Day (Saint Kitts and Nevis) Christian feast day: Basil the Great (Catholic Church and Church of England) Defendens of Thebes Earliest day on which the Feast of the Holy Name of Jesus is observed, while January 5 is the latest; celebrated on Sunday between January 2 and 5. (Roman Catholic Church, 1960 calendar) Gregory of Nazianzus (Catholic Church) Johann Konrad Wilhelm Löhe (Lutheran Church) Macarius of Alexandria Seraphim of Sarov (repose) (Eastern Orthodox Church) Vedanayagam Samuel Azariah (Episcopal Church) January 2 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Nyinlong (Bhutan) The first day of Blacks and Whites' Carnival, celebrated until January 7. (southern Colombia) The first day of the Carnival of Riosucio, celebrated until January 8 every 2 years. (Riosucio) The ninth of the Twelve Days of Christmas (Western Christianity) The second day of New Year (a holiday in Kazakhstan, North Macedonia, Mauritius, Montenegro, New Zealand, Romania, Russia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Ukraine New Year Holiday (Scotland), if it is a Sunday, the day moves to January 3 Kaapse Klopse (Cape Town, South Africa) Victory of Armed Forces Day (Cuba)
  27. January 1 or 1 January, is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 364 days remaining until the end of the year (365 in leap years). This day is known as New Year's Day since the day marks the beginning of the year. Events Pre-Julian Roman calendar 153 BC – For the first time, Roman consuls begin their year in office on January 1. Early Julian calendar (before Augustus' leap year correction) 45 BC – The Julian calendar takes effect as the civil calendar of the Roman Empire, establishing January 1 as the new date of the new year. 42 BC – The Roman Senate posthumously deifies Julius Caesar. Holidays and observances Christian feast day: Adalard of Corbie Basil the Great (Eastern Orthodox Church) Feast of the Circumcision of Christ Feast of the Holy Name of Jesus (Anglican Communion, Lutheran Church) Feast of Fools (Medieval Europe) Fulgentius of Ruspe Giuseppe Maria Tomasi Solemnity of Mary, Mother of God, the Octave Day of Christmas, considered a holy day of obligation in some countries (Catholic Church); and its related observances: World Day of Peace Telemachus Zygmunt Gorazdowski January 1 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Earliest day on which Handsel Monday can fall, while January 7 is the latest; celebrated on the first Monday of the year (Scotland) Second day of Hogmanay (Scotland) December 31-January 1, in some cases until January 2. The last day of Kwanzaa (African-Americans) The eighth of the Twelve Days of Christmas (Western Christianity) Constitution Day (Italy) Dissolution of Czechoslovakia-related observances: Day of the Establishment of the Slovak Republic (Slovakia) Restoration Day of the Independent Czech State (Czech Republic) Emancipation Day (United States) Euro Day (European Union) Flag Day (Lithuania) commemorates raising of the Lithuanian flag on Gediminas' Tower in 1919 Founding Day (Taiwan) commemorates the establishment of the Provisional Government in Nanjing Global Family Day Independence Day (Brunei, Cameroon, Haiti, Sudan) International Nepali Dhoti and Nepali Topi Day Jump-up Day (Montserrat) Kalpataru Day (Ramakrishna Movement) Kamakura Ebisu, January 1–3 (Kamakura, Kanagawa, Japan) National Bloody Mary Day (United States) National Tree Planting Day (Tanzania) New Year's Day (Gregorian calendar) Japanese New Year Novy God Day (Russia) Sjoogwachi (Okinawa Islands) Polar Bear Swim Day (Canada and United States) Public Domain Day (multiple countries) Triumph of the Revolution (Cuba)
  28. December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. It is known by a collection of names including: Saint Sylvester's Day, New Year's Eve or Old Years Day/Night, as the following day is New Year's Day. It is the last day of the year; the following day is January 1, the first day of the following year. Events 406 – Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, beginning an invasion of Gaul. 535 – Byzantine general Belisarius completes the conquest of Sicily, defeating the Gothic garrison of Palermo (Panormos), and ending his consulship for the year. 870 – Battle of Englefield: The Vikings clash with ealdorman Æthelwulf of Berkshire. The invaders are driven back to Reading (East Anglia), many Danes are killed. 1105 – Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV is forced to abdicate in favor of his son, Henry V, in Ingelheim.[2] 1225 – The Lý dynasty of Vietnam ends after 216 years by the enthronement of the boy emperor Trần Thái Tông, husband of the last Lý monarch, Lý Chiêu Hoàng, starting the Trần dynasty. 1229 – James I the Conqueror, King of Aragon enters Medina Mayurqa (now known as Palma, Spain) thus consummating the Christian reconquest of the island of Majorca. 1501 – The First Battle of Cannanore commences, seeing the first use of the naval line of battle. 1600 – The British East India Company is chartered. 1660 – James II of England is named Duke of Normandy by Louis XIV of France. 1670 – The expedition of John Narborough leaves Corral Bay having surveyed the coast and lost four hostages to the Spanish.[3] 1687 – The first Huguenots set sail from France to the Cape of Good Hope. 1757 – Empress Elizabeth I of Russia issues her ukase incorporating Königsberg into Russia. 1759 – Arthur Guinness signs a 9,000 year lease at £45 per annum and starts brewing Guinness. 1775 – American Revolutionary War: Battle of Quebec: British forces repulse an attack by Continental Army General Richard Montgomery. 1790 – Efimeris, the oldest Greek newspaper of which issues have survived till today, is published for the first time. 1796 – The incorporation of Baltimore as a city. 1831 – Gramercy Park is deeded to New York City. 1853 – A dinner party is held inside a life-size model of an iguanodon created by Benjamin Waterhouse Hawkins and Sir Richard Owen in south London, England. 1857 – Queen Victoria chooses Ottawa, then a small logging town, as the capital of the Province of Canada. 1862 – American Civil War: Abraham Lincoln signs an act that admits West Virginia to the Union, thus dividing Virginia in two. 1862 – American Civil War: The Battle of Stones River begins near Murfreesboro, Tennessee. 1878 – Karl Benz, working in Mannheim, Germany, filed for a patent on his first reliable two-stroke gas engine, and he was granted the patent in 1879. 1879 – Thomas Edison demonstrates incandescent lighting to the public for the first time, in Menlo Park, New Jersey. 1906 – Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar signs the Persian Constitution of 1906. 1907 – The first New Year's Eve celebration is held in Times Square (then known as Longacre Square) in Manhattan. 1942 – USS Essex, first aircraft carrier of a 24-ship class, is commissioned.[4] 1944 – World War II: Operation Nordwind, the last major Wehrmacht offensive on the Western Front begins. 1946 – President Harry S. Truman officially proclaims the end of hostilities in World War II. 1951 – Cold War: The Marshall Plan expires after distributing more than US$13.3 billion in foreign aid to rebuild Western Europe. 1955 – General Motors becomes the first U.S. corporation to make over US$1 billion in a year. 1956 – The Romanian Television network begins its first broadcast in Bucharest. 1961 – RTÉ, Ireland's state broadcaster, launches its first national television service. 1963 – The Central African Federation officially collapses, subsequently becoming Zambia, Malawi and Rhodesia. 1965 – Jean-Bédel Bokassa, leader of the Central African Republic army, and his military officers begins a coup d'état against the government of President David Dacko. 1968 – The first flight of the Tupolev Tu-144, the first civilian supersonic transport in the world. 1981 – A coup d'état in Ghana removes President Hilla Limann's PNP government and replaces it with the Provisional National Defence Council led by Flight lieutenant Jerry Rawlings. 1983 – The AT&T Bell System is broken up by the United States Government. 1983 – Benjamin Ward is appointed New York City Police Department's first ever African American police commissioner. 1983 – In Nigeria a coup d'état led by Major General Muhammadu Buhari ends the Second Nigerian Republic. 1991 – All official Soviet Union institutions have ceased operations by this date five days after the Soviet Union is officially dissolved. 1992 – Czechoslovakia is peacefully dissolved in what is dubbed by media as the Velvet Divorce, resulting in the creation of the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic. 1994 – This date is skipped altogether in Kiribati as the Phoenix Islands and Line Islands change time zones from UTC−11:00 to UTC+13:00 and UTC−10:00 to UTC+14:00, respectively. 1994 – The First Chechen War: The Russian Ground Forces begin a New Year's storming of Grozny. 1998 – The European Exchange Rate Mechanism freezes the values of the legacy currencies in the Eurozone, and establishes the value of the euro currency. 1999 – The first President of Russia, Boris Yeltsin, resigns from office, leaving Prime Minister Vladimir Putin as the acting President and successor. 1999 – The U.S. government hands control of the Panama Canal (as well all the adjacent land to the canal known as the Panama Canal Zone) to Panama. This act complied with the signing of the 1977 Torrijos–Carter Treaties. 1999 – Indian Airlines Flight 814 hijacking ended after seven days with the release of 190 survivors at Kandahar Airport, Afghanistan. 2000 – The last day of the 20th Century and 2nd Millennium. 2004 – The official opening of Taipei 101, the tallest skyscraper at that time in the world, standing at a height of 509 metres (1,670 ft). 2009 – Both a blue moon and a lunar eclipse occur. 2010 – Tornadoes touch down in midwestern and southern United States, including Washington County, Arkansas; Greater St. Louis, Sunset Hills, Missouri, Illinois, and Oklahoma, with a few tornadoes in the early hours. A total 36 tornadoes touched down, resulting in the deaths of nine people and $113 million in damages. 2011 – Samoa and Tokelau skip the day of December 30, 2011 as they jump to the other side of International Date Line, changing their time zones.[5] 2011 – NASA succeeds in putting the first of two Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory satellites in orbit around the Moon. 2014 – A New Year's Eve celebration stampede in Shanghai kills at least 36 people and injures 49 others. 2015 – A fire broke out at the Downtown Address Hotel in Downtown Dubai, United Arab Emirates located near the Burj Khalifa two hours before the fireworks display was due to commence. Sixteen injuries were reported; one had a heart attack, another suffered a major injury, and fourteen others with minor injuries. 2018 – Thirty-nine people are killed after a ten-story building collapsed in the industrial city of Magnitogorsk, Russia.[6] 2019 – The World Health Organization was informed of cases of pneumonia with an unknown cause, detected in Wuhan.[7] This later turned out to be COVID-19, the cause of the COVID-19 pandemic. Holidays and observances Christian feast day: Pope Sylvester I (Catholic Church) December 31 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) International Solidarity Day of Azerbaijanis (Azerbaijan) New Year's Eve (International observance), and its related observances: First Night (United States) Last Day of the Year or Bisperás ng Bagong Taón, special holiday between Rizal Day and New Year's Day (Philippines) Novy God Eve (Russia) Ōmisoka (Japan) The first day of Hogmanay or "Auld Year's Night" (Scotland) The seventh of the Twelve Days of Christmas (Western Christianity) The sixth and penultimate day of Kwanzaa (United States)
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