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  1. Today
  2. October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 67 days remain until the end of the year. Events 285 (or 286) – Execution of Saints Crispin and Crispinian during the reign of Diocletian, now the patron saints of leather workers, curriers, and shoemakers. 473 – Emperor Leo I acclaims his grandson Leo II as Caesar of the East Roman Empire. 1147 – Seljuk Turks defeat German crusaders under Conrad III at the Battle of Dorylaeum. 1147 – Reconquista: After a siege of four months, crusader knights reconquer Lisbon. 1415 – Hundred Years' War: Henry V of England, with his lightly armoured infantry and archers, defeats the heavily armoured French cavalry in the Battle of Agincourt. 1616 – Dutch sea-captain Dirk Hartog makes the second recorded landfall by a European on Australian soil, at the later-named Dirk Hartog Island off the West Australian coast. 1747 – War of the Austrian Succession: A British fleet under Admiral Edward Hawke defeats the French at the Second Battle of Cape Finisterre. 1760 – King George III succeeds to the British throne on death of his grandfather George II[1] 1812 – War of 1812: The American frigate, USS United States, commanded by Stephen Decatur, captures the British frigate HMS Macedonian. 1822 – Greek War of Independence: The First Siege of Missolonghi begins. 1854 – The Battle of Balaclava takes place during the Crimean War. It is soon memorialized in verse as The Charge of the Light Brigade. 1861 – The Toronto Stock Exchange is created. 1900 – The United Kingdom annexes the Transvaal. 1917 – Old Style date of the October Revolution in Russia. 1920 – After 74 days on hunger strike in Brixton Prison, England, the Sinn Féin Lord Mayor of Cork, Terence MacSwiney dies. 1924 – The Zinoviev letter, which Zinoviev himself denied writing, is published in the Daily Mail; the Labour party would later blame this letter for the Conservatives' landslide election win four days later. 1927 – The Italian luxury liner SS Principessa Mafalda sinks off the coast of Brazil, killing 314. 1940 – Benjamin O. Davis Sr. is named the first African American general in the United States Army. 1944 – World War II: Heinrich Himmler orders a crackdown on the Edelweiss Pirates, a loosely organized youth culture in Nazi Germany that had assisted army deserters and others to hide from the Third Reich. 1944 – World War II: The USS Tang under Richard O'Kane (the top American submarine ace of the war) is sunk by the ship's own malfunctioning torpedo. 1944 – World War II: The final attempt of the Imperial Japanese Navy to win the war climaxes at the Battle of Leyte Gulf. 1945 – Fifty years of Japanese administration of Taiwan formally ends when the Republic of China assumes control. 1949 – The Battle of Guningtou in the Taiwan Strait begins. 1962 – Cuban Missile Crisis: Adlai Stevenson shows the United Nations Security Council reconnaissance photographs of Soviet ballistic missiles in Cuba. 1971 – The People's Republic of China replaces the Republic of China at the United Nations. 1973 – Egypt and Israel accept United Nations Security Council Resolution 339. 1980 – Proceedings on the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction conclude. 1983 – The United States and its Caribbean allies invade Grenada, six days after Prime Minister Maurice Bishop and several of his supporters are executed in a coup d'état. 1995 – A commuter train slams into a school bus in Fox River Grove, Illinois, killing seven students. 1997 – After a civil war, Denis Sassou Nguesso proclaims himself President of the Republic of the Congo. 2009 – The October 2009 Baghdad bombings kill 155 and wounds at least 721. Holidays and observances Armed Forces Day (Romania) Christian feast day: Bernat Calbó (Bernard of Calvo) Pope Boniface I Canna Blessed Carlo Gnocchi Crysanthus and Daria (Western Christianity) Crispin and Crispinian Fructus Gaudentius of Brescia Goeznovius Minias of Florence Mar Nestorius (in the Nestorian churches) Tabitha (Dorcas) Tegulus Blessed Thaddeus McCarthy The Six Welsh Martyrs and companions (in Wales) The Hallowing of Nestorius October 25 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Earliest day on which Nevada Day can fall, while October 31 is the latest; celebrated on last Friday in October. (Nevada) Earliest day on which October Holiday can fall, while October 31 is the latest; observed on last Monday in October. (Ireland) Earliest day on which Teacher's Day (Australia) can fall, while October 31 is the latest; celebrated on last Friday in October. (Australia) Constitution Day (Lithuania) Customs Officer's Day (Russia) Day of the Basque Country (Basque Country) Republic Day (Kazakhstan) Retrocession Day (Taiwan) Sovereignty Day (Slovenia) Thanksgiving Day (Grenada)
  3. October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 68 days remain until the end of the year. Events AD 69 – In the Second Battle of Bedriacum, troops loyal to Vespasian defeat those of Emperor Vitellius.[1] 1260 – Chartres Cathedral is dedicated in the presence of King Louis IX of France.[2] 1360 – The Treaty of Brétigny is ratified, marking the end of the first phase of the Hundred Years' War.[3] 1590 – John White, the governor of the second Roanoke Colony, returns to England after an unsuccessful search for the "lost" colonists. 1641 – Felim O'Neill of Kinard, the leader of the Irish Rebellion, issues his Proclamation of Dungannon, justifying the uprising and declaring continued loyalty to King Charles I of England.[4] 1648 – The Peace of Westphalia is signed, marking the end of the Thirty Years' War. 1795 – Poland is completely consumed by Russia, Prussia and Austria. 1812 – Napoleonic Wars: The Battle of Maloyaroslavets takes place near Moscow.[5] 1851 – William Lassell discovers the moons Umbriel and Ariel orbiting Uranus. 1857 – Sheffield F.C., the world's oldest association football club still in operation, is founded in England. 1861 – The first transcontinental telegraph line across the United States is completed. 1871 – An estimated 17 to 20 Chinese immigrants are lynched in Los Angeles, California. 1889 – Henry Parkes delivers the Tenterfield Oration, effectively starting the federation process in Australia.[6] 1901 – Annie Edson Taylor becomes the first person to go over Niagara Falls in a barrel.[7] 1902 – Guatemala's Santa María Volcano begins to erupt, becoming the third-largest eruption of the 20th century. 1911 – Orville Wright remains in the air nine minutes and 45 seconds in a glider at Kill Devil Hills, North Carolina. 1912 – First Balkan War: The Battle of Kirk Kilisse concludes with a Bulgarian victory against the Ottoman Empire. 1912 – First Balkan War: The Battle of Kumanovo concludes with the Serbian victory against the Ottoman Empire. 1917 – World War I: Italy suffers a disastrous defeat on the Austro-Italian front. 1926 – Harry Houdini's last performance takes place at the Garrick Theatre in Detroit. 1929 – "Black Thursday" on the New York Stock Exchange. 1930 – A bloodless coup d'état in Brazil ends the First Republic, replacing it with the Vargas Era. 1931 – The George Washington Bridge opens to public traffic over the Hudson River. 1944 – World War II: Japan's center force is temporarily repulsed in the Battle of Leyte Gulf. 1945 – The United Nations Charter comes into effect. 1946 – A camera on board the V-2 No. 13 rocket takes the first photograph of earth from outer space. 1947 – Famed animator Walt Disney testifies before the House Un-American Activities Committee, naming Disney employees he believes to be communists. 1949 – The cornerstone of the United Nations Headquarters is laid. 1954 – President Eisenhower pledges United States support to South Vietnam. 1956 – At the request of the Stalinist regime of Ernő Gerő, a massive Soviet force invades Budapest during the Hungarian Revolution. Imre Nagy is reinstalled as Prime Minister. 1957 – The United States Air Force starts the X-20 Dyna-Soar manned space program. 1960 – A ballistic missile explodes on the launch pad in the Soviet Union, killing over 100 people. 1963 – An oxygen leak from an R-9 Desna missile at the Baikonur Cosmodrome triggers a fire that kills seven people. 1964 – Northern Rhodesia gains independence from the United Kingdom and becomes Zambia.[8] 1975 – In Iceland, 90% of women take part in a national strike, refusing to work in protest of gender inequality.[9] 1980 – The government of Poland legalizes the Solidarity trade union. 1986 – Nezar Hindawi is sentenced to 45 years in prison, the longest sentence handed down by a British court, for the attempted bombing of an El Al flight at Heathrow Airport. 1990 – Italian prime minister Giulio Andreotti reveals to the Italian parliament the existence of Gladio, the Italian NATO force formed in 1956, intended to be activated in the event of a Warsaw Pact invasion. 1992 – The Toronto Blue Jays become the first Major League Baseball team based outside the United States to win the World Series. 1998 – Deep Space 1 is launched to explore the asteroid belt and test new spacecraft technologies. 2002 – Police arrest spree killers John Allen Muhammad and Lee Boyd Malvo, ending the Beltway sniper attacks in the area around Washington, D.C. 2003 – Concorde makes its last commercial flight. 2004 – Arsenal Football Club loses to Manchester United, ending a row of unbeaten matches at 49 matches, which is the record in the Premier League. 2005 – Hurricane Wilma makes landfall in Florida, resulting in 35 direct and 26 indirect fatalities and causing $20.6B USD in damage. 2007 – Chang'e 1, the first satellite in the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program, is launched from Xichang Satellite Launch Center. 2008 – "Bloody Friday" saw many of the world's stock exchanges experience the worst declines in their history, with drops of around 10% in most indices. 2014 – The China National Space Administration launches an experimental lunar mission, Chang'e 5-T1, which will loop behind the Moon and return to Earth. 2015 – A driver crashes into the Oklahoma State Homecoming parade, killing four people and injuring 34. 2016 – A French surveillance aircraft flying to Libya crashes on takeoff in Malta, killing all five people on board. Holidays and observances Christian feast day: Anthony Mary Claret Eberigisil (Evergitus) Five Martyrs of Carthage (Felix and companions) Luigi Guanella Magloire of Dol Martin of Vertou Proclus of Constantinople Rafael Guízar y Valencia Senoch October 24 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Azad Kashmir Day (Pakistan) Day of Special Forces of the Armed Forces (Russia) Food Day (United States) Independence Day, celebrates the independence of Zambia from United Kingdom in 1964. Suez Day (Egypt) United Nations Day, the anniversary of the 1945 Charter of the United Nations (International) World Development Information Day World Polio Day
  4. Last week
  5. October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 69 days remain until the end of the year. Events 4004 BC – James Ussher's proposed creation date of the world according to the Bible. 42 BC – Liberators' civil war: Mark Antony and Octavian decisively defeat Brutus's army. Brutus commits suicide. 425 – Valentinian III is elevated as Roman emperor at the age of six. 501 – The Synodus Palmaris, called by Gothic king Theoderic, absolves Pope Symmachus of all charges, thus ending the schism of Antipope Laurentius. 1086 – Spanish Reconquista: At the Battle of Sagrajas, the Almoravids defeats the Castilians, but are unable to take advantage of their victory. 1157 – The Battle of Grathe Heath ends a civil war in Denmark. 1295 – The first treaty forming the Auld Alliance between Scotland and France against England is signed in Paris. 1641 – Irish Catholic gentry from Ulster attempt to seize control of Dublin Castle, the seat of English rule in Ireland, so as to force concessions. 1642 – The Battle of Edgehill is the first major battle of the English Civil War. 1707 – The First Parliament of Great Britain convenes. 1739 – The War of Jenkins' Ear begins when Prime Minister Walpole reluctantly declares war on Spain. 1812 – A French general begins a conspiracy to overthrow Napoleon, claiming that the Emperor died in Russia. 1850 – The first National Women's Rights Convention begins in Worcester, Massachusetts. 1864 – American Civil War: The Battle of Westport is the last significant engagement west of the Mississippi River. 1906 – Alberto Santos-Dumont flies an airplane in the first heavier-than-air flight in Europe. 1911 – The Italo-Turkish War sees the first use of an airplane in combat when an Italian pilot makes a reconnaissance flight. 1912 – First Balkan War: The Battle of Kumanovo between the Serbian and Ottoman armies begins. 1942 – World War II: Allied forces commence the Second Battle of El Alamein, which proves to be the key turning point in the North African campaign. 1942 – All 12 passengers and crewmen aboard American Airlines Flight 28 are killed when it collides with a USAAF bomber near Palm Springs, California. 1942 – World War II: The Battle for Henderson Field begins on Guadalcanal. 1944 – World War II: The Battle of Leyte Gulf begins. 1955 – Prime Minister Ngô Đình Diệm defeats former emperor Bảo Đại in a referendum and founds the Republic of Vietnam. 1955 – The people of the Saar region vote in a referendum to unite with Germany instead of France. 1956 – Secret police shoot several anti-communist protesters, igniting the Hungarian Revolution. 1958 – Canada's Springhill mining disaster kills seventy-five miners, while ninety-nine others are rescued. 1965 – Vietnam War: The 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile), in conjunction with South Vietnamese forces, launches an operation seeking to destroy Communist forces during the siege of Plei Me. 1970 – Gary Gabelich sets a land speed record in a rocket-powered automobile called the Blue Flame, fueled with natural gas. 1972 – Vietnam War: Operation Linebacker, a US bombing campaign against North Vietnam in response to its Easter Offensive, ends after five months. 1973 – Watergate scandal: President Nixon agrees to turn over subpoenaed audio tapes of his Oval Office conversations. 1982 – A gunfight breaks out between police officers and members of a religious cult in Arizona. The shootout leaves two cultists dead and dozens of cultists and police officers injured. 1983 – Lebanese Civil War: The U.S. Marines barracks in Beirut is hit by a truck bomb, killing 241 U.S. military personnel. A French army barracks in Lebanon is also hit that same morning, killing 58 troops. 1989 – The Hungarian Republic officially replaces the communist Hungarian People's Republic. 1989 – Bankruptcy of Wärtsilä Marine; the biggest bankruptcy in the Nordic countries up until then. 1991 – Signing of the Paris Peace Accords which ends the Cambodian–Vietnamese War. 1993 – The Troubles: A Provisional IRA bomb prematurely detonates in Belfast, killing the bomber and nine civilians. 1995 – Yolanda Saldívar is found guilty of first-degree murder in the shooting death of popular Latin singer Selena. 1998 – Israel and the Palestinian Authority sign the Wye River Memorandum. 2002 – Chechen terrorists seize the House of Culture theater in Moscow and take approximately 700 theater-goers hostage. 2004 – A powerful earthquake and its aftershocks hit Niigata Prefecture in northern Japan, killing 35 people, injuring 2,200, and leaving 85,000 homeless or evacuated. 2007 – A storm causes the Mexican Kab 101 oil platform to collide with a wellhead, leading to the death and drowning of 22 people during rescue operations after evacuation of the platform. 2011 – A powerful 7.2 magnitude earthquake strikes Van Province, Turkey, killing 582 people and injuring thousands. 2011 – The Libyan National Transition Council deems the Libyan Civil War over. 2015 – The lowest sea-level pressure in the Western Hemisphere, and the highest reliably-measured non-tornadic sustained winds, are recorded in Hurricane Patricia, which strikes Mexico hours later, killing at least 13 and causing over $280 million in damages. Holidays and observances Christian feast day: Feast of the Most Holy Redeemer James the Just (i.e. James, brother of Jesus) (Lutheran, Episcopal Church (USA), Eastern Orthodox) Allucio of Campugliano Amon of Toul (Diocese of Toul) Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius Giovanni da Capistrano Ignatios of Constantinople Joséphine Leroux Peter Pascual Romain (Romanus) of Rouen Servandus and Cermanus Severin of Cologne October 23 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Christmas or the Feast of Señor Noemi (the Child Jesus) in the Apostolic Catholic Church Aviator's Day (Brazil) Chulalongkorn Day (Thailand) Day of the Macedonian Revolutionary Struggle (Republic of North Macedonia) Liberation Day (Libya) Mole Day (International observance) National Day (Hungary) Paris Peace Agreement Day (Cambodia)
  6. October 22 is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 70 days remain until the end of the year. Events 451 – The Chalcedonian Creed, regarding the divine and human nature of Jesus, is adopted by the Council of Chalcedon, an ecumenical council.[1] 794 – Emperor Kanmu relocates the Japanese capital to Heian-kyō (now Kyoto).[2] 906 – Ahmad ibn Kayghalagh leads a raid against the Byzantine Empire, taking 4,000–5,000 captives.[3] 1383 – The male line of the Portuguese House of Burgundy becomes extinct with the death of King Fernando, leaving only his daughter Beatrice. Rival claimants begin a period of civil war and disorder.[4] 1633 – The Ming dynasty defeats the Dutch East India Company. 1707 – Four British naval vessels run aground on the Isles of Scilly because of faulty navigation. In response, the first Longitude Act is enacted in 1714. 1721 – Russian Empire is proclaimed by Tsar Peter I after the Swedish defeat in the Great Northern War. 1730 – Construction of the Ladoga Canal is completed. 1746 – The College of New Jersey (later renamed Princeton University) receives its charter. 1777 – American Revolutionary War: American defenders of Fort Mercer on the Delaware River repulse repeated Hessian attacks in the Battle of Red Bank. 1784 – Russia founds a colony on Kodiak Island, Alaska. 1790 – Northwest Indian War: Native American forces defeat the United States, ending the Harmar Campaign.[5] 1797 – André-Jacques Garnerin makes the first recorded parachute jump, from one thousand meters (3,200 feet) above Paris. 1836 – Sam Houston is inaugurated as the first President of the Republic of Texas. 1844 – Millerites, followers of Baptist preacher William Miller anticipate the end of the world in conjunction with the Second Advent of Christ. The following day became known as the Great Disappointment. 1859 – Spain declares war on Morocco. 1866 – A plebiscite ratifies the annexion of Veneto and Mantua to Italy, which had occurred three days before, on October 19. 1875 – First telegraphic connection in Argentina. 1877 – The Blantyre mining disaster in Scotland kills 207 miners. 1878 – The Bramall Lane stadium sees the first rugby match played under floodlights. 1879 – Using a filament of carbonized thread, Thomas Edison tests the first practical electric incandescent light bulb (it lasts 131⁄2 hours before burning out). 1883 – The Metropolitan Opera House in New York City opens with a performance of Gounod's Faust.[6] 1884 – The International Meridian Conference designates the Royal Observatory, Greenwich as the world's prime meridian. 1895 – In Paris an express train derails after overrunning the buffer stop, crossing almost 30 metres (100 ft) of concourse before crashing through a wall and falling 10 metres (33 ft) to the road below. 1907 – A run on the stock of the Knickerbocker Trust Company sets events in motion that will spark the Panic of 1907. 1910 – Hawley Harvey Crippen (the first felon to be arrested with the help of radio) is convicted of poisoning his wife. 1923 – The royalist Leonardopoulos–Gargalidis coup d'état attempt fails in Greece, discrediting the monarchy and paving the way for the establishment of the Second Hellenic Republic. 1934 – In East Liverpool, Ohio, FBI agents shoot and kill notorious bank robber Pretty Boy Floyd. 1941 – World War II: French resistance member Guy Môquet and 29 other hostages are executed by the Germans in retaliation for the death of a German officer. 1943 – World War II: In the second firestorm raid on Germany, the RAF conducts an air raid on the town of Kassel, killing 10,000 and rendering 150,000 homeless. 1946 – Over twenty-two hundred engineers and technicians from eastern Germany are forced to relocate to the Soviet Union, along with their families and equipment. 1947 – The Kashmir conflict between India and Pakistan begins, having started just after the partition of India. 1962 – Cuban Missile Crisis: President Kennedy, after internal counsel from Dwight D. Eisenhower, announces that American reconnaissance planes have discovered Soviet nuclear weapons in Cuba, and that he has ordered a naval "quarantine" of the Communist nation. 1963 – A BAC One-Eleven prototype airliner crashes in UK with the loss of all on board. 1964 – Jean-Paul Sartre is awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, but turns down the honor. 1964 – An all-party Parliamentary Committee selects the design which will become the new official flag of Canada. 1975 – The Soviet unmanned space mission Venera 9 lands on Venus. 1976 – Red Dye No. 4 is banned by the US Food and Drug Administration after it is discovered that it causes tumors in the bladders of dogs. 1981 – The United States Federal Labor Relations Authority votes to decertify the Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization (PATCO) for its strike the previous August. 1983 – Two correctional officers are killed by inmates at the United States Penitentiary in Marion, Illinois. The incident inspires the Supermax model of prisons. 1999 – Maurice Papon, an official in the Vichy France government during World War II, is jailed for crimes against humanity. 2001 – Grand Theft Auto III is released, popularizing a genre of open-world, action-adventure video games, as well as spurring controversy around violence in video games. 2005 – Tropical Storm Alpha forms in the Atlantic Basin, making the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season the most active Atlantic hurricane season until surpassed by the 2020 season. 2005 – Bellview Airlines Flight 210 crashes in Nigeria, killing all 117 people on board. 2006 – A Panama Canal expansion proposal is approved by 77.8% of voters in a National referendum. 2007 – A raid on Anuradhapura Air Force Base is carried out by 21 Tamil Tiger commandos. All except one die in this attack. Eight Sri Lanka Air Force planes are destroyed and 10 damaged. 2008 – India launches its first unmanned lunar mission Chandrayaan-1. 2013 – The Australian Capital Territory becomes the first Australian jurisdiction to legalize same-sex marriage with the Marriage Equality (Same Sex) Act 2013. 2014 – Michael Zehaf-Bibeau attacks the Parliament of Canada, killing a soldier and injuring three other people. 2019 – Same-sex marriage is legalised, and abortion is decriminalised in Northern Ireland as a result of the Northern Ireland Assembly not being restored. Holidays and observances Christian feast day: Aaron the Illustrious (Syriac Orthodox Church) Abercius of Hieropolis Bertharius Cordula Donatus of Fiesole Marcus of Jerusalem Mary Salome Mellonius of Rouen Nunilo and Alodia Pope John Paul II Theodoret of Antioch October 22 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Earliest day on which Labour Day can fall, while October 28 is the latest; celebrated on the fourth Monday in October (New Zealand) Fechner Day (International observance) International Stuttering Awareness Day Jidai Matsuri (Kyoto, Japan) National Santri Day (Indonesia) Wombat Day (Australia)
  7. October 21 is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 71 days remain until the end of the year. Events 1096 – A Seljuk Turkish army successfully fight off the People's Crusade. 1097 – Crusaders led by Godfrey of Bouillon, Bohemund of Taranto, and Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse, begin the Siege of Antioch. 1209 – Otto IV is crowned Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire by Pope Innocent III. 1392 – Japanese Emperor Go-Kameyama abdicates in favor of rival claimant Go-Komatsu. 1512 – Martin Luther joins the theological faculty of the University of Wittenberg. 1520 – Ferdinand Magellan discovers a strait now known as the Strait of Magellan. 1520 – João Álvares Fagundes discovers the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, bestowing them their original name of "Islands of the 11,000 Virgins". 1600 – Tokugawa Ieyasu defeats the leaders of rival Japanese clans in the Battle of Sekigahara and becomes shōgun of Japan. 1774 – The flag of Taunton, Massachusetts is the first to include the word "Liberty". 1797 – In Boston Harbor, the 44-gun United States Navy frigate USS Constitution is launched. 1805 – Napoleonic Wars: A British fleet led by Lord Nelson defeats a combined French and Spanish fleet under Admiral Villeneuve in the Battle of Trafalgar. 1824 – Portland cement is patented. 1854 – Florence Nightingale and a staff of 38 nurses are sent to the Crimean War. 1861 – American Civil War: Union forces under Colonel Edward Baker are defeated by Confederate troops in the second major battle of the war. 1867 – The Medicine Lodge Treaty is signed by southern Great Plains Indian leaders. The treaty requires Native American Plains tribes to relocate to a reservation in western Oklahoma. 1879 – Thomas Edison applies for a patent for his design for an incandescent light bulb. 1888 – Foundation of the Swiss Social Democratic Party. 1892 – Opening ceremonies for the World's Columbian Exposition are held in Chicago, though because construction was behind schedule, the exposition did not open until May 1, 1893. 1895 – The Republic of Formosa collapses as Japanese forces invade. 1907 – The 1907 Qaratog earthquake hits the borders of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, killing between 12,000 and 15,000 people. 1910 – HMS Niobe arrives in Halifax Harbour to become the first ship of the Royal Canadian Navy. 1921 – President Warren G. Harding delivers the first speech by a sitting U.S. president against lynching in the deep South. 1931 – A secret society in the Imperial Japanese Army launches an abortive coup d'état attempt. 1940 – The first edition of the Ernest Hemingway novel For Whom the Bell Tolls is published. 1943 – World War II: The Provisional Government of Free India is formally established in Japanese-occupied Singapore. 1944 – World War II: The first kamikaze attack damages HMAS Australia as the Battle of Leyte Gulf begins. 1944 – World War II: The Nemmersdorf massacre against the German civilians takes place. 1944 – World War II: The city of Aachen falls to American forces after three weeks of fighting, making it the first German city to fall to the Allies. 1945 – French women vote for the first time during the 1945 French legislative election. 1950 – Korean War: Heavy fighting begins between British and Australian forces against the North Koreans during the Battle of Yongju. 1956 – The Mau Mau Uprising in Kenya is defeated. 1959 – In New York City, the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum opens to the public. 1959 – President Eisenhower approves the transfer of all US Army space-related activities to NASA, including most of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency. 1965 – Comet Ikeya–Seki approaches perihelion, passing 450,000 kilometers (279,617 miles) from the sun. 1966 – A colliery spoil tip collapses on the village of Aberfan in Wales, killing 144 people, mostly schoolchildren. 1967 – The National Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam organizes a march of fifty thousand people from the Lincoln Memorial to the Pentagon. 1969 – The 1969 Somali coup d'état establishes a Marxist–Leninist administration. 1971 – A gas explosion kills 22 people at a shopping centre near Glasgow, Scotland. 1973 – Fred Dryer of the Los Angeles Rams becomes the first player in NFL history to score two safeties in the same game. 1978 – Australian civilian pilot Frederick Valentich vanishes over the Bass Strait south of Melbourne, after reporting contact with an unidentified aircraft. 1979 – Moshe Dayan resigns from the Israeli government because of strong disagreements with Prime Minister Menachem Begin over policy towards the Arabs. 1981 – Andreas Papandreou becomes Prime Minister of Greece, ending an almost 50-year-long system of power dominated by conservative forces. 1983 – The metre is defined as the distance light travels in a vacuum in 1/299,792,458 of a second. 1986 – In Lebanon, pro-Iran kidnappers claim to have abducted American writer Edward Tracy (he is released in August 1991). 1987 – The Jaffna hospital massacre is carried out by Indian Peace Keeping Force in Sri Lanka, killing 70 ethnic Tamil patients, doctors and nurses. 1994 – North Korea and the United States sign an Agreed Framework that requires North Korea to stop its nuclear weapons program and agree to inspections. 1994 – In Seoul, South Korea, 32 people are killed when a span of the Seongsu Bridge collapses.[1] 2005 – Images of the dwarf planet Eris are taken and subsequently used in documenting its discovery. 2019 – Thirty people are killed in a fiery bus crash in western Democratic Republic of the Congo.[2] 2019 – In Canada, the 2019 Canadian Federal Election ends, resulting in incumbent Prime Minister Justin Trudeau remaining in office, albeit in a minority government. (Global) (CBC) Holidays and observances Apple Day (United Kingdom) Armed Forces Day (Honduras) Christian feast day: Asterius of Ostia Berthold of Parma Blessed Charles of Austria (Roman Catholic Church) Fintán of Taghmon Hilarion John of Bridlington Laura of Saint Catherine of Siena Leticia (one of The Korean Martyrs) Malchus of Syria Peter Yu Tae-chol Severinus of Bordeaux Tuda of Lindisfarne Ursula Viator of Lyons October 21 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Egyptian Naval Day (Egypt) Indian Police Commemoration Day (India) National Nurses' Day (Thailand) Ndadaye Day (Burundi) Overseas Chinese Day (Republic of China) Trafalgar Day (the British Empire in the 19th and early 20th century) Birth of the Báb (2017) (Baháʼí Faith)
  8. October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 72 days remain until the end of the year. Events 1568 – The Spanish Duke of Alba defeats a Dutch rebel force under William the Silent.[1] 1572 – Eighty Years' War: Three thousand Spanish soldiers wade through fifteen miles of water in one night to effect the relief of Goes.[2] 1740 – France, Prussia, Bavaria and Saxony refuse to honour the Pragmatic Sanction, and the War of the Austrian Succession begins. 1781 – The Patent of Toleration, providing limited freedom of worship, is approved in Austria. 1803 – The United States Senate ratifies the Louisiana Purchase. 1818 – The Convention of 1818 is signed between the United States and the United Kingdom, which settles the Canada–United States border on the 49th parallel for most of its length. 1827 – In the Battle of Navarino, a combined Turkish and Egyptian fleet is defeated by British, French and Russian naval forces in the last significant battle fought with wooden sailing ships. 1883 – Peru and Chile sign the Treaty of Ancón, by which the Tarapacá province is ceded to the latter, bringing an end to Peru's involvement in the War of the Pacific. 1904 – Chile and Bolivia sign the Treaty of Peace and Friendship, delimiting the border between the two countries. 1935 – The Long March, a mammoth retreat undertaken by the armed forces of the Chinese Communist Party a year prior, ends. 1941 – World War II: Thousands of civilians in German-occupied Serbia are murdered in the Kragujevac massacre. 1944 – World War II: The Soviet Army and Yugoslav Partisans liberate Belgrade. 1944 – Liquefied natural gas leaks from storage tanks in Cleveland and then explodes, leveling 30 blocks and killing 130 people. 1944 – American general Douglas MacArthur fulfills his promise to return to the Philippines when he comes ashore during the Battle of Leyte. 1947 – The House Un-American Activities Committee begins its investigation into Communist infiltration of the Hollywood film industry, resulting in a blacklist that prevents some from working in the industry for years. 1951 – The "Johnny Bright incident" occurs during a football game between the Drake Bulldogs and Oklahoma A&M Aggies. 1952 – The Governor of Kenya declares a state of emergency and begins arresting hundreds of suspected leaders of the Mau Mau Uprising. 1961 – The Soviet Union performs the first armed test of a submarine-launched ballistic missile, launching an R-13 from a Golf-class submarine. 1962 – China launches simultaneous offensives in Ladakh and across the McMahon Line, igniting the Sino-Indian War. 1973 – "Saturday Night Massacre": United States President Richard Nixon fires U.S. Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus after they refuse to fire special prosecutor Archibald Cox, who is finally fired by Robert Bork. 1973 – The Sydney Opera House is opened by Elizabeth II after 14 years of construction. 1976 – The ferry George Prince is struck by a ship while crossing the Mississippi River. Seventy-eight passengers and crew die, and only 18 people aboard the ferry survive. 1981 – Two police officers and an armored car guard are killed during an armed robbery carried out by members of the Black Liberation Army and Weather Underground. 1982 – During the UEFA Cup match between FC Spartak Moscow and HFC Haarlem, 66 people are crushed to death in the Luzhniki disaster. 1986 – Aeroflot Flight 6502 crashes while landing at Kuibyshev Airport (now Kuromoch International Airport) in Kuibyshev (now present-day Samara, Russia), killing 70 people.[3] 1991 – A 6.8 Mw earthquake strikes the Uttarkashi region of India, killing more than 1,000 people. 2011 – Libyan Civil War: Rebel forces capture Libyan dictator Muammar Gaddafi in his hometown of Sirte and kill him shortly thereafter. Holidays and observances Christian feast days: Acca of Hexham Aderald Artemius Caprasius of Agen Hedwig (in Canada, moved from Oct. 16) Irene of Tomar Magdalene of Nagasaki Margaret Marie Alacoque (in Canada, moved from Oct. 16) Maria Bertilla Boscardin Mater Admirabilis October 20 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Arbor Day (Czech Republic) Heroes' Day (Kenya) Revolution Day (Guatemala), one of the two Patriotic Days (Guatemala) Vietnamese Women's Day (Vietnam) World Osteoporosis Day World Statistics Day
  9. October 19 is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 73 days remain until the end of the year. Events 202 BC – Second Punic War: At the Battle of Zama, Roman legions under Scipio Africanus defeat Hannibal Barca, leader of the army defending Carthage. 439 – The Vandals, led by King Gaiseric, take Carthage in North Africa. 1216 – King John of England dies at Newark-on-Trent and is succeeded by his nine-year-old son Henry. 1386 – The Universität Heidelberg holds its first lecture, making it the oldest German university. 1453 – Hundred Years' War: Three months after the Battle of Castillon, England loses its last possessions in southern France. 1466 – The Thirteen Years' War between Poland and the Teutonic Order ends with the Second Treaty of Thorn. 1469 – Ferdinand II of Aragon marries Isabella I of Castile, a marriage that paves the way to the unification of Aragon and Castile into a single country, Spain. 1512 – Martin Luther becomes a doctor of theology. 1579 – James VI of Scotland is celebrated as an adult ruler by a festival in Edinburgh.[1] 1596 – The Spanish ship San Felipe runs aground on the coast of Japan and its cargo is confiscated by local authorities 1649 – New Ross town in Ireland surrenders to Oliver Cromwell. 1781 – American Revolutionary War: The siege of Yorktown comes to an end. 1789 – John Jay is sworn in as the first Chief Justice of the United States. 1805 – War of the Third Coalition: Austrian General Mack surrenders his army to Napoleon at the Battle of Ulm. 1812 – The French invasion of Russia fails when Napoleon begins his retreat from Moscow. 1813 – War of the Sixth Coalition: Napoleon is forced to retreat from Germany after the Battle of Leipzig. 1864 – American Civil War: The Battle of Cedar Creek ends the last Confederate threat to Washington, DC. 1864 – American Civil War: Confederate agents based in Canada rob three banks in Saint Albans, Vermont. 1866 – In accordance with the Treaty of Vienna, Austria cedes Veneto and Mantua to France, which immediately awards them to Italy in exchange for the earlier Italian acquiescence to the French annexation of Savoy and Nice. 1900 – Max Planck discovers Planck's law of black-body radiation. 1912 – Italo-Turkish War: Italy takes possession of what is now Libya from the Ottoman Empire. 1914 – First World War: The First Battle of Ypres begins. 1921 – The Portuguese Prime Minister and several officials are murdered in the Bloody Night coup. 1922 – British Conservative MPs vote to terminate the coalition government with the Liberal Party. 1935 – The League of Nations places economic sanctions on Italy for its invasion of Ethiopia. 1943 – The cargo vessel Sinfra is attacked by Allied aircraft at Crete and sunk. 2,098 Italian prisoners of war drown with it. 1943 – Streptomycin, the first antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis, is isolated by researchers at Rutgers University. 1944 – United States forces land in the Philippines. 1944 – A coup is launched against Juan Federico Ponce Vaides, beginning the ten-year Guatemalan Revolution. 1950 – China defeats the Tibetan Army at Chambo. 1950 – Korean War: The Battle of Pyongyang ends in a United Nations victory. Hours later, the Chinese Army begins crossing the border into Korea. 1950 – Iran becomes the first country to accept technical assistance from the United States under the Point Four Program. 1956 – The Soviet Union and Japan sign a Joint Declaration, officially ending the state of war between the two countries that had existed since August 1945. 1960 – The United States imposes a near-total trade embargo against Cuba. 1973 – President Nixon rejects an Appeals Court decision that he turn over the Watergate tapes. 1974 – Niue becomes a self-governing colony of New Zealand. 1984 – A Roman Catholic priest, Jerzy Popiełuszko, associated with the Solidarity Union, is killed by three agents of the Polish Communist internal intelligence agency. 1986 – The president of Mozambique and a prominent leader of FRELIMO, along with 33 others, die when their aircraft crashes into the Lebombo Mountains. 1987 – The United States Navy conducts Operation Nimble Archer, an attack on two Iranian oil platforms in the Persian Gulf. 1987 – Black Monday: The Dow Jones Industrial Average falls by 22%, 508 points. 1988 – The British government imposes a broadcasting ban on television and radio interviews with members of Sinn Féin and eleven Irish republican and Ulster loyalist paramilitary groups. 1989 – The convictions of the Guildford Four are quashed by the Court of Appeal of England and Wales, after they had spent 15 years in prison. 2001 – SIEV X, an Indonesian fishing boat en route to Christmas Island, carrying over 400 migrants, sinks in international waters with the loss of 353 people. 2003 – Mother Teresa is beatified by Pope John Paul II. 2004 – Thirteen people are killed when Corporate Airlines Flight 5966 crashes in Adair County, Missouri, whilst on approach to Kirksville Regional Airport.[2] 2005 – Saddam Hussein goes on trial in Baghdad for crimes against humanity. 2005 – Hurricane Wilma becomes the most intense Atlantic hurricane on record with a minimum pressure of 882 mb. 2012 – A bomb explosion kills eight people and injures 110 more in Lebanon. 2013 – At least 105 people are injured in a train crash in Buenos Aires. Holidays and observances Christian feast day: Aaron (Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria) Aquilinus of Évreux Desiderius (Didier) of Auxerre Frideswide Henry Martyn (Anglican Communion) Isaac Jogues, Jean de Brébeuf, and Companions Blessed Jerzy Popiełuszko Paul of the Cross Ptolemaeus and Lucius Varus Veranus of Cavaillon William Carey (Episcopal Church) October 19 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Constitution Day, in honor of the country's independence (self-governing in free association with New Zealand) in 1974. (Niue) Mother Teresa Day (Albania)
  10. October 18 is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 74 days remain until the end of the year. Events 320 – Pappus of Alexandria, Greek philosopher, observes an eclipse of the Sun and writes a commentary on The Great Astronomer (Almagest). 614 – King Chlothar II promulgates the Edict of Paris (Edictum Chlotacharii), a sort of Frankish Magna Carta that defends the rights of the Frankish nobles while it excludes Jews from all civil employment in the Frankish Kingdom. 629 – Dagobert I is crowned King of the Franks. 1009 – The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, a Christian church in Jerusalem, is completely destroyed by the Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, who hacks the Church's foundations down to bedrock. 1016 – The Danes defeat the English in the Battle of Assandun. 1081 – The Normans defeat the Byzantine Empire in the Battle of Dyrrhachium. 1356 – Basel earthquake, the most significant historic seismological event north of the Alps, destroys the town of Basel, Switzerland. 1540 – Spanish conquistador Hernando de Soto's forces destroy the fortified town of Mabila in present-day Alabama, killing Tuskaloosa. 1561 – In Japan the fourth Battle of Kawanakajima is fought between the forces of Uesugi Kenshin and Takeda Shingen, resulting in a draw. 1565 – Ships belonging to the Matsura clan of Japan fail to capture the Portuguese trading carrack in the Battle of Fukuda Bay, the first recorded naval battle between Japan and the West. 1599 – Michael the Brave, Prince of Wallachia, defeats the Army of Andrew Báthory in the Battle of Șelimbăr, leading to the first recorded unification of the Romanian people. 1648 – Boston shoemakers form first American labor organization. 1748 – Signing of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ends the War of the Austrian Succession. 1775 – African-American poet Phillis Wheatley is freed from slavery. 1775 – American Revolutionary War: The Burning of Falmouth (now Portland, Maine). 1779 – American Revolutionary War: The Franco-American Siege of Savannah is lifted. 1797 – Treaty of Campo Formio is signed between France and Austria 1851 – Herman Melville's Moby-Dick is first published as The Whale by Richard Bentley of London. 1860 – The Second Opium War finally ends at the Convention of Peking with the ratification of the Treaty of Tientsin, an unequal treaty. 1867 – United States takes possession of Alaska after purchasing it from Russia for $7.2 million. Celebrated annually in the state as Alaska Day. 1898 – The United States takes possession of Puerto Rico from Spain. 1912 – First Balkan War: King Peter I of Serbia issues a declaration "To the Serbian People", as his country joins the war. 1914 – The Schoenstatt Apostolic Movement is founded in Germany. 1921 – The Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic is formed as part of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. 1922 – The British Broadcasting Company (later Corporation) is founded by a consortium, to establish a nationwide network of radio transmitters to provide a national broadcasting service. 1929 – The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council overrules the Supreme Court of Canada in Edwards v. Canada when it declares that women are considered "Persons" under Canadian law. 1944 – World War II: Soviet Union begins the liberation of Czechoslovakia from Nazi Germany. 1944 – World War II: The state funeral of Field Marshal Erwin Rommel takes place in Ulm, Germany. 1945 – The USSR's nuclear program receives plans for the United States plutonium bomb from Klaus Fuchs at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. 1945 – A group of the Venezuelan Armed Forces, led by Mario Vargas, Marcos Pérez Jiménez and Carlos Delgado Chalbaud, stages a coup d'état against president Isaías Medina Angarita, who is overthrown by the end of the day. 1945 – Argentine military officer and politician Juan Perón marries actress Eva Duarte. 1954 – Texas Instruments announces the first transistor radio. 1963 – Félicette, a black and white female Parisian stray cat, becomes the first cat launched into space. 1967 – The Soviet probe Venera 4 reaches Venus and becomes the first spacecraft to measure the atmosphere of another planet. 1977 – German Autumn: a set of events revolving around the kidnapping of Hanns Martin Schleyer and the hijacking of a Lufthansa flight by the Red Army Faction (RAF) comes to an end when Schleyer is murdered and various RAF members allegedly commit suicide. 1979 – The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) begins allowing people to have home satellite earth stations without a federal government license. 1991 – The Supreme Council of Azerbaijan adopts a declaration of independence from the Soviet Union. 2003 – Bolivian gas conflict: Bolivian President Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada is forced to resign and leave Bolivia. 2007 – Karachi bombing: A suicide attack on a motorcade carrying former Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto kills 139 and wounds 450 more. Bhutto herself is uninjured. 2019 – NASA Astronauts Jessica Meir and Christina Koch take part in the first all-female spacewalk when they venture out of the International Space Station to replace a power controller. Holidays and observances Alaska Day (Alaska, United States) Christian feast day: Justus of Beauvais Luke the Evangelist Peter of Alcantara, can also be celebrated on October 19. October 18 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Independence Day (Azerbaijan), celebrates the independence of Azerbaijan from the Soviet Union in 1991. Necktie Day (Croatia) Persons Day (Canada) World Menopause Day
  11. October 17 is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 75 days remain until the end of the year. Events 690 – Empress Wu Zetian establishes the Zhou Dynasty of China.[1] 1091 – London tornado of 1091: A tornado thought to be of strength T8/F4 strikes the heart of London. 1346 – The English capture King David II of Scotland at Neville's Cross and imprison him for eleven years. 1448 – An Ottoman army defeats a Hungarian army at the Second Battle of Kosovo. 1456 – The University of Greifswald is established as the second oldest university in northern Europe. 1534 – Anti-Catholic posters appear in Paris and other cities supporting Huldrych Zwingli's position on the Mass. 1558 – Poczta Polska, the Polish postal service, is founded. 1604 – Kepler's Supernova is observed in the constellation of Ophiuchus. 1610 – French king Louis XIII is crowned in Reims Cathedral. 1660 – The nine regicides who signed the death warrant of Charles I of England are hanged, drawn and quartered. 1662 – Charles II of England sells Dunkirk to Louis XIV of France for 40,000 pounds. 1771 – Premiere in Milan of the opera Ascanio in Alba, composed by Mozart at age 15. 1777 – American Revolutionary War: British General John Burgoyne surrenders his army at Saratoga, New York. 1781 – American Revolutionary War: British General Charles, Earl Cornwallis surrenders at the Siege of Yorktown. 1800 – War of the Second Coalition: Britain takes control of the Dutch colony of Curaçao. 1806 – Former leader of the Haitian Revolution, Emperor Jacques I, is assassinated after an oppressive rule. 1814 – Eight people die in the London Beer Flood. 1817 – The tomb of Pharaoh Seti I is discovered.[2] 1860 – First The Open Championship (referred to in North America as the British Open). 1861 – Aboriginal Australians kill nineteen Europeans in the Cullin-la-ringo massacre. 1907 – Marconi begins the first commercial transatlantic wireless service. 1912 – Bulgaria, Greece and Serbia declare war on the Ottoman Empire, joining Montenegro in the First Balkan War. 1931 – Al Capone is convicted of income tax evasion. 1933 – Albert Einstein flees Nazi Germany and moves to the United States. 1940 – The body of Communist propagandist Willi Münzenberg found in South France, starting a never-resolved mystery. 1941 – World War II: The USS Kearny becomes the first U.S. Navy vessel to be torpedoed by a U-boat. 1943 – The Burma Railway (Burma–Thailand Railway) is completed. 1943 – Nazi Holocaust in Poland: Sobibór extermination camp is closed. 1945 – A massive demonstration in Buenos Aires, Argentina, demands Juan Perón's release. 1956 – The first commercial nuclear power station is officially opened by Queen Elizabeth II in Sellafield, England. 1961 – Directed by their chief Maurice Papon, Paris police massacre scores of Algerian protesters. 1965 – The 1964–65 New York World's Fair closes after two years and more than 51 million attendees. 1966 – The 23rd Street Fire in New York City kills 12 firefighters. 1969 – The Caravaggio painting Nativity with St. Francis and St. Lawrence is stolen from the Oratory of Saint Lawrence in Palermo.[3] 1970 – FLQ terrorists murder Quebec Vice-Premier and Minister of Labour Pierre Laporte. 1973 – OPEC imposes an oil embargo against countries they deem to have helped Israel in the Yom Kippur War. 1977 – The hijacked Lufthansa Flight 181 lands in Mogadishu. The remaining hostages are later rescued. 1979 – Mother Teresa is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. 1979 – The Department of Education Organization Act creates the U.S. Department of Education. 1980 – As part of the Holy See–United Kingdom relations a British monarch makes the first state visit to the Vatican. 1988 – Uganda Airlines Flight 775 crashes at Rome–Fiumicino International Airport, in Rome, Italy, killing 33 people.[4] 1989 – The 6.9 Mw Loma Prieta earthquake shakes the San Francisco Bay Area and the Central Coast, killing 63. 1989 – The East German Politburo votes to remove Erich Honecker from his role as General Secretary. 1991 – 1991 Rudrapur bombings by Sikh separatists, who explode two bombs, during a Ramlila Hindu celebration in Rudrapur, Uttarakhand, killing 41 people.[5] 1992 – Having gone to the wrong house, Japanese student Yoshihiro Hattori is killed by the homeowner in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 1994 – Russian journalist Dmitry Kholodov is assassinated while investigating corruption in the armed forces. 2000 – The Hatfield rail crash leads to the collapse of Railtrack. 2001 – Israeli tourism minister Rehavam Ze'evi becomes the first Israeli minister to be assassinated in a terrorist attack. 2003 – Taipei 101, a 101-floor skyscraper in Taipei, becomes the world's tallest high-rise. 2018 – The recreational use of cannabis is legalized in Canada. 2018 – Kerch Polytechnic College attack in Crimea. 2019 – Drug dealers in Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico force the government to back down on an arrest. Holidays and observances Christian feast day: Andrew of Crete Anstrudis Catervus Ethelred and Ethelberht Florentius of Orange François-Isidore Gagelin (one of Vietnamese Martyrs) Hosea Ignatius of Antioch John the Short (John Colobus) Marguerite Marie Alacoque (formerly) Nothhelm Rule of Andrew Richard Gwyn Victor of Capua October 17 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Dessalines Day (Haiti) Digital Society Day (India) International Day for the Eradication of Poverty Loyalty Day (Argentina)
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  13. October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 76 days remain until the end of the year. Events 456 – Ricimer defeats Avitus at Piacenza and becomes master of the Western Roman Empire.[1] 690 – Empress Wu Zetian ascends to the throne of the Tang dynasty and proclaims herself ruler of the Chinese Empire. 912 – Abd ar-Rahman III becomes the eighth Emir of Córdoba.[2] 955 – King Otto I defeats a Slavic revolt in what is now Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. 1311 – The Council of Vienne convenes for the first time.[3] 1384 – Jadwiga is crowned King of Poland, although she is a woman. 1590 – Prince Gesualdo of Venosa murders his wife and her lover. 1736 – Mathematician William Whiston's predicted comet fails to strike the Earth.[4] 1780 – American Revolutionary War: The British-led Royalton raid is the last Native American raid on New England. 1780 – The Great Hurricane of 1780 finishes after its sixth day, killing between 20,000 and 24,000 residents of the Lesser Antilles.[5] 1793 – French Revolution: Queen Marie Antoinette is executed. 1793 – War of the First Coalition: French victory at the Battle of Wattignies forces Austria to raise the siege of Maubeuge. 1805 – War of the Third Coalition: Napoleon surrounds the Austrian army at Ulm.[6] 1813 – The Sixth Coalition attacks Napoleon in the three-day Battle of Leipzig. 1817 – Simón Bolívar sentences Manuel Piar to death for challenging the racial-caste in Venezuela.[7] 1834 – Much of the ancient structure of the Palace of Westminster in London burns to the ground. 1836 – Great Trek: Afrikaner voortrekkers repulse a Matabele attack, but lose their livestock. 1841 – Queen's University is founded in the Province of Canada. 1843 – William Rowan Hamilton invents quaternions, a three-dimensional system of complex numbers. 1846 – William T. G. Morton administers ether anesthesia during a surgical operation. 1847 – The novel Jane Eyre is published in London. 1859 – John Brown leads a raid on Harpers Ferry, Virginia. 1869 – The Cardiff Giant, one of the most famous American hoaxes, is "discovered". 1869 – Girton College, Cambridge is founded, becoming England's first residential college for women. 1875 – Brigham Young University is founded in Provo, Utah. 1882 – The Nickel Plate Railroad opens for business. 1905 – The Partition of Bengal in India takes place. 1906 – The Wilhelm Voigt fools the city hall of Köpenick and several soldiers by impersonating a Prussian officer. 1909 – William Howard Taft and Porfirio Díaz hold the first summit between a U.S. and a Mexican president. They narrowly escape assassination.[8] 1916 – Margaret Sanger opens the first family planning clinic in the United States. 1919 – Adolf Hitler delivers his first public address at a meeting of the German Workers' Party.[9] 1923 – The Walt Disney Company is founded. 1934 – Chinese Communists begin the Long March to escape Nationalist encirclement. 1939 – World War II: No. 603 Squadron RAF intercepts the first Luftwaffe raid on Britain. 1940 – Holocaust in Poland: The Warsaw Ghetto is established. 1943 – Holocaust in Italy: Raid of the Ghetto of Rome. 1946 – Nuremberg trials: Ten defendants found guilty by the International Military Tribunal are executed by hanging. 1947 – The Philippines takes over the administration of the Turtle Islands and the Mangsee Islands from the United Kingdom. 1949 – The Greek Communist Party announces a "temporary cease-fire", thus ending the Greek Civil War. 1951 – The first Prime Minister of Pakistan, Liaquat Ali Khan, is assassinated in Rawalpindi. 1962 – Cuban Missile Crisis begins: Kennedy is informed of photos taken on October 14 by a U-2 showing nuclear missiles (the crisis will last for 13 days starting from this point). 1964 – China detonates its first nuclear weapon. 1964 – Leonid Brezhnev becomes leader of the Soviet Communist Party, while Alexei Kosygin becomes the head of government. 1968 – Tommie Smith and John Carlos are ejected from the US Olympic team for participating in the Olympics Black Power salute. 1968 – Kingston, Jamaica is rocked by the Rodney riots, inspired by the barring of Walter Rodney from the country. 1968 – Yasunari Kawabata becomes the first Japanese person to be awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. 1970 – Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau invokes the War Measures Act during the October Crisis. 1973 – Henry Kissinger and Lê Đức Thọ are awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. 1975 – Indonesian troops kill the Balibo Five, a group of Australian journalists, Portuguese Timor. 1975 – Three-year-old Rahima Banu, from Bangladesh, is the last known case of naturally occurring smallpox. 1975 – The Australian Coalition sparks a constitutional crisis when they vote to defer funding for the government's annual budget. 1978 – Pope John Paul II becomes the first non-Italian pontiff since 1523. 1984 – Desmond Tutu is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. 1991 – George Hennard runs amok in Killeen, Texas, killing 23 and wounding 20. 1995 – The Million Man March takes place in Washington, D.C. About 837,000 attended.[10] 1995 – The Skye Bridge in Scotland is opened. 1996 – Eighty-four football fans die and 180 are injured in a massive crush at a match in Guatemala City. 1998 – Former Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet is arrested in London on a murder extradition warrant. 2002 – The Bibliotheca Alexandrina opens in Egypt, commemorating the ancient library of Alexandria. 2013 – Lao Airlines Flight 301 crashes on approach to Pakse International Airport in Laos, killing 49 people. 2017 – Storm Ophelia strikes the U.K. and Ireland causing major damage and power loss. Holidays and observances Air Force Day (Bulgaria) Boss's Day (United States and Canada) Christian feast day: Balderic (Baudry) of Monfaucon Bercharius Bertrand of Comminges Colmán of Kilroot (Colman mac Cathbaid) Eliphius Fortunatus of Casei Gall Gerard Majella Hedwig of Silesia Hugh Latimer (Anglicanism) Junian (of Saint-Junien) Marguerite Marie Alacoque Marie-Marguerite d'Youville Nicholas Ridley (Anglicanism) Silvanus of Ahun Blessed Thevarparampil Kunjachan (Syro-Malabar Catholic Church / Catholic Church) Pope Victor III October 16 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Pope John Paul II Day (Poland) Death anniversary of Liaquat Ali Khan (Pakistan) Teachers' Day (Chile) World Anaesthesia Day (International) World Food Day (International)
  14. October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 77 days remain until the end of the year. Events 1066 – Following the death of Harold II at the Battle of Hastings, Edgar the Ætheling is proclaimed King of England by the Witan; he is never crowned, and concedes power to William the Conqueor two months later.[1] 1211 – Battle of the Rhyndacus: The Latin emperor Henry of Flanders defeats the Nicaean emperor Theodore I Laskaris. 1529 – The Siege of Vienna ends when Austria routs the invading Ottoman forces, ending its European expansion. 1582 – Adoption of the Gregorian calendar begins, eventually leading to near-universal adoption. 1783 – The Montgolfier brothers' hot air balloon makes the first human ascent, piloted by Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier. 1793 – Queen Marie Antoinette of France is tried and convicted of treason.[2] 1809 – The Viceroy the Río de la Plata, Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros, opens the port of Buenos Aires to trade with nations other than Spain. 1815 – Napoleon begins his exile on Saint Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean. 1863 – American Civil War: The H. L. Hunley, the first submarine to sink a ship, sinks, killing its inventor. 1864 – American Civil War: The Union garrison of Glasgow, Missouri surrenders to Confederate forces. 1878 – The Edison Electric Light Company begins operation. 1879 – The Segura river in southeastern Spain floods, killing 1077 people. 1888 – The "From Hell" letter allegedly sent by Jack the Ripper is received by investigators. 1910 – Airship America is launched from New Jersey in the first attempt to cross the Atlantic by a powered aircraft. 1917 – World War I: Dutch dancer Mata Hari is executed by France for espionage. 1923 – The German Rentenmark is introduced in Germany to counter hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic. 1928 – The airship, Graf Zeppelin completes its first trans-Atlantic flight, landing at Lakehurst, New Jersey, United States. 1932 – Tata Airlines (later to become Air India) makes its first flight. 1939 – The New York Municipal Airport (later renamed LaGuardia Airport) is dedicated. 1940 – President Lluís Companys of Catalonia is executed by the Francoist government. 1944 – World War II: Germany replaces the Hungarian government after it announces an armistice with the Soviet Union. 1945 – The former premier of Vichy France, Pierre Laval, is executed for treason. 1951 – Mexican chemist Luis E. Miramontes completes the synthesis of norethisterone, the basis of an early oral contraceptive. 1954 – Hurricane Hazel devastates the eastern seaboard of North America, killing 95 and causing massive floods as far north as Toronto. 1956 – FORTRAN, the first modern computer language, is first shared with the coding community. 1965 – Vietnam War: A draft card is burned during an anti-war rally by the Catholic Worker Movement, resulting in the first arrest under a new law. 1966 – The Black Panther Party is created by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale. 1979 – Supporters of the Malta Labour Party ransack and destroy the Times of Malta building and other locations associated with the Nationalist Party. 1979 – A coup d'état in El Salvador overthrows President Carlos Humberto Romero and begins the 12 year-long Salvadoran Civil War.[3] 1989 – Wayne Gretzky becomes the all-time leading points scorer in the NHL. 1989 – Eight of those convicted in South Africa's Rivonia Trial are released from prison. 1990 – Soviet Union leader Mikhail Gorbachev is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to lessen Cold War tensions and open up his nation. 1991 – The "Oh-My-God particle", an ultra-high-energy cosmic ray measured at 40,000,000 times that of the highest energy protons produced in a particle accelerator is observed at the University of Utah HiRes observatory in Dugway Proving Ground, Utah. 1994 – The Clinton administration returns Haiti's first democratically elected president, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, to the island. 1995 – Marco Campos dies in a race at the Circuit de Nevers Magny-Cours, the only driver ever killed in the International Formula 3000 series. 1995 – Saddam Hussein is reelected president of Iraq through a referendum. 1997 – The Cassini probe launches from Cape Canaveral on its way to Saturn. 2001 – NASA's Galileo spacecraft passes within 112 miles of Jupiter's moon Io. 2003 – China launches Shenzhou 5, its first manned space mission. 2005 – A planned neo-Nazi protest against African-American street gangs sets off a riot in Toledo, Ohio. Twenty-nine people are arrested. 2006 – The 6.7 Mw Kiholo Bay earthquake rocks Hawaii, causing property damage, injuries, landslides, power outages, and the closure of Honolulu International Airport. 2007 – Seventeen activists in New Zealand are arrested in the country's first post-9/11 anti-terrorism raids. 2008 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes down 733.08 points, or 7.87%, the second worst percentage drop in the Dow's history. 2011 – The 2011 Global Protests occur. 2013 – The 7.2 Mw Bohol earthquake strikes the Philippines. At least 215 die. 2016 – One hundred ninety-seven nations amend the Montreal Protocol to include a phase-out of hydrofluorocarbons. Holidays and observances Anniversary of the 1987 Coup d'État (Burkina Faso) Breast Health Day (Europe) Christian feast day: Bruno of Querfurt Cúan of Ahascragh Teresa of Ávila Thecla of Kitzingen October 15 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Earliest day on which Heroes' Day can fall, while October 21 is the latest; celebrated on the third Monday in October. (Jamaica) Earliest day on which Mother's Day can fall, while October 21 is the latest; celebrated on the third Monday in October. (Argentina) Earliest day on which Sweetest Day can fall, while October 21 is the latest; celebrated on the third Saturday in October. (Great Lakes region) Evacuation Day (Tunisia) Global Handwashing Day International Day of Rural Women (United Nations) King Father's Commemoration Day (Cambodia) National Latino AIDS Awareness Day (United States) Pregnancy and Infant Loss Remembrance Day (Canada, the United States, the UK and Italy) Teachers' Day (Brazil) White Cane Safety Day (United States) World Students' Day
  15. October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 78 days remain until the end of the year. Events 1066 – The Norman conquest of England begins with the Battle of Hastings.[1] 1322 – Robert the Bruce of Scotland defeats King Edward II of England at the Battle of Old Byland, forcing Edward to accept Scotland's independence.[2] 1586 – Mary, Queen of Scots, goes on trial for conspiracy against Queen Elizabeth I of England.[3] 1656 – The General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony enacts the first punitive legislation against the Religious Society of Friends.[4] 1758 – Seven Years' War: Frederick the Great suffers a rare defeat at the Battle of Hochkirch.[5] 1773 – The first recorded ministry of education, the Commission of National Education, is formed in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. 1805 – War of the Third Coalition: A French corps defeats an Austrian attempt to escape encirclement at Ulm. 1806 – War of the Fourth Coalition: Napoleon decisively defeats Prussia at the Battle of Jena–Auerstedt. 1808 – The Republic of Ragusa is annexed by France. 1843 – Irish nationalist Daniel O'Connell is arrested by the British on charges of criminal conspiracy. 1863 – American Civil War: Confederate troops under the command of A. P. Hill fail to drive the Union Army completely out of Virginia. 1884 – George Eastman receives a U.S. Government patent on his new paper-strip photographic film. 1888 – Louis Le Prince films the first motion picture, Roundhay Garden Scene. 1898 – The steam ship SS Mohegan sinks near the Lizard peninsula, Cornwall, killing 106. 1908 – The Chicago Cubs defeat the Detroit Tigers, 2–0, clinching the 1908 World Series; this would be their last until winning the 2016 World Series. 1910 – English aviator Claude Grahame-White lands his aircraft on Executive Avenue near the White House in Washington, D.C. 1912 – Former president Theodore Roosevelt is shot and mildly wounded by John Flammang Schrank. With the fresh wound in his chest, and the bullet still within it, Roosevelt delivers his scheduled speech. 1913 – Senghenydd colliery disaster, the United Kingdom's worst coal mining accident, claims the lives of 439 miners. 1915 – World War I: Bulgaria joins the Central Powers. 1920 – Finland and Soviet Russia sign the Treaty of Tartu, exchanging some territories. 1933 – Germany withdraws from the League of Nations and World Disarmament Conference. 1939 – World War II: The German submarine U-47 sinks the British battleship HMS Royal Oak within her harbour at Scapa Flow, Scotland. 1940 – World War II: The Balham underground station disaster kills sixty-six people during the London Blitz. 1943 – World War II: Prisoners at Sobibor extermination camp covertly assassinate most of the on-duty SS officers and then stage a mass breakout. 1943 – World War II: The American Eighth Air Force loses 60 of 291 B-17 Flying Fortress during the Second Raid on Schweinfurt. 1943 – World War II: The Second Philippine Republic, a puppet state of Japan, is inaugurated with José P. Laurel as its president. 1947 – Chuck Yeager becomes the first person to exceed the speed of sound. 1949 – The Smith Act trials of Communist Party leaders in the United States convicts eleven defendants of conspiring to advocate the violent overthrow of the federal government. 1952 – Korean War: The Battle of Triangle Hill is the biggest and bloodiest battle of 1952. 1956 – Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, leader of India's Untouchable caste, converts to Buddhism along with 385,000 of his followers (see Neo-Buddhism). 1957 – The 23rd Canadian Parliament becomes the only one to be personally opened by the Queen of Canada. 1957 – At least 81 people are killed in the most devastating flood in the history of the Spanish city of Valencia. 1962 – The Cuban Missile Crisis begins when an American reconnaissance aircraft takes photographs of Soviet ballistic missiles being installed in Cuba. 1964 – Martin Luther King Jr. receives the Nobel Peace Prize for combating racial inequality through nonviolence. 1964 – The Soviet Presidium and the Communist Party Central Committee each vote to accept Nikita Khrushchev's "voluntary" request to retire from his offices. 1966 – The city of Montreal begins the operation of its underground Montreal Metro rapid transit system. 1968 – The first live TV broadcast by American astronauts in orbit is performed by the Apollo 7 crew. 1968 – The 6.5 Mw  Meckering earthquake shakes the southwest portion of Western Australia with a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX (Violent), causing $2.2 million in damage and leaving 20–28 people injured. 1968 – Jim Hines becomes the first man ever to break the so-called "ten-second barrier" in the 100-meter sprint with a time of 9.95 seconds. 1973 – In the Thammasat student uprising, over 100,000 people protest in Thailand against the military government. Seventy-seven are killed and 857 are injured by soldiers. 1975 – An RAF Avro Vulcan bomber explodes and crashes over Żabbar, Malta after an aborted landing, killing five crew members and one person on the ground.[6] 1979 – The first National March on Washington for Lesbian and Gay Rights draws approximately 100,000 people. 1981 – Vice President Hosni Mubarak is elected as the President of Egypt, one week after the assassination of Anwar Sadat. 1982 – U.S. President Ronald Reagan proclaims a War on Drugs. 1991 – Burmese opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. 1994 – Yasser Arafat, Yitzhak Rabin and Shimon Peres receive the Nobel Peace Prize for their role in the establishment of the Oslo Accords and the framing of future Palestinian self government. 1998 – Eric Rudolph is charged with six bombings, including the 1996 Centennial Olympic Park bombing in Atlanta, Georgia. 2003 – The Steve Bartman Incident takes place at Wrigley Field in Chicago, Illinois.[7] 2004 – MK Airlines Flight 1602 crashes during takeoff from Halifax Stanfield International Airport, killing all seven people on board. 2004 – Pinnacle Airlines Flight 3701 crashes in Jefferson City, Missouri. The two pilots (the aircraft's only occupants) are killed.[8] 2012 – Felix Baumgartner successfully jumps to Earth from a balloon in the stratosphere. 2014 – A snowstorm and avalanche in the Nepalese Himalayas triggered by the remnants of Cyclone Hudhud kills 43 people. 2014 – The Serbia vs. Albania UEFA qualifying match is canceled after 42 minutes due to several incidents on and off the pitch. Albania is eventually awarded a win. 2015 – A suicide bomb attack in Pakistan kills at least seven people and injures 13 others. 2017 – A massive truck bombing in Somalia kills 358 people and injures more than 400 others. Holidays and observances Christian feast day: Angadrisma Fortunatus of Todi Joseph Schereschewsky (Episcopal Church (USA)) Pope Callixtus I October 14 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Intercession of the Theotokos Day of the Cathedral of the Living Pillar (Georgian Orthodox Church) Mother's Day (Belarus) National Education Day (Poland), formerly Teachers' Day Nyerere Day (Tanzania) Second Revolution Day (Yemen) World Standards Day (International) Defender of Ukraine Day (Ukraine)
  16. October 13 is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 79 days remain until the end of the year. Events AD 54 – Roman emperor Claudius dies from poisoning under mysterious circumstances.[1] 409 – Vandals and Alans cross the Pyrenees and appear in Hispania. 1269 – The present church building at Westminster Abbey is consecrated. 1307 – Hundreds of Knights Templar in France are arrested at dawn by King Phillip the Fair, and later confess under torture to heresy. 1332 – Rinchinbal Khan becomes the Khagan of the Mongols and Emperor of the Yuan dynasty, reigning for only 53 days. 1399 – Coronation of Henry IV of England at Westminster Abbey.[2][3] 1644 – A Swedish–Dutch fleet defeats the Danish fleet at Fehmarn and captures about 1,000 prisoners. 1710 – Port Royal, the capital of French Acadia, falls in a siege by British forces. 1775 – The Continental Congress establishes the Continental Navy (predecessor of the United States Navy). 1792 – In Washington, D.C., the cornerstone of the United States Executive Mansion (known as the White House since 1818) is laid. 1793 – French Revolutionary Wars: Austro-Prussian victory over Republican France at the First Battle of Wissembourg. 1812 – War of 1812: Sir Isaac Brock's British and native forces repel an invasion of Canada by General Rensselaer's United States forces. 1821 – The Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire is publicly proclaimed. 1843 – In New York City, B'nai B'rith, the oldest Jewish service organization in the world, is founded. 1881 – First known conversation in modern Hebrew by Eliezer Ben-Yehuda and friends. 1884 – The International Meridian Conference establishes the meridian of the Greenwich Observatory as the prime meridian. 1885 – The Georgia Institute of Technology is founded in Atlanta, Georgia. 1892 – Edward Emerson Barnard discovers first comet discovered by photographic means. 1903 – The Boston Red Sox win the first modern World Series, defeating the Pittsburgh Pirates in the eighth game. 1908 – Margaret Travers Symons bursts into the UK parliament and became the first woman to speak there.[4] 1911 – Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, becomes the first Governor General of Canada of royal descent. 1915 – First World War: The Battle of the Hohenzollern Redoubt marks the end of the Battle of Loos. 1917 – The "Miracle of the Sun" is witnessed by an estimated 70,000 people in the Cova da Iria in Portugal. 1921 – Soviet republics sign the Treaty of Kars to formalize the borders between Turkey and the South Caucasus states. 1923 – Ankara becomes the capital of Turkey. 1943 – World War II: Marshal Pietro Badoglio announces that Italy has officially declared war on Germany. 1944 – World War II: The Soviet Riga Offensive captures the city. 1946 – France adopts the constitution of the Fourth Republic. 1962 – The Pacific Northwest experiences a cyclone the equal of a Category 3 hurricane, with winds above 150 mph. Forty-six people die. 1972 – Aeroflot Flight 217 crashes outside Moscow, killing 174. 1972 – Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571 crashes in the Andes mountains. Twenty-eight survive the crash. All but 16 succumb before rescue on December 23.[5] 1976 – The first electron micrograph of an Ebola virus is taken at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention by Dr. F. A. Murphy. 1977 – Hijacking of Lufthansa Flight 181 by the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. 1983 – Ameritech Mobile Communications launches the first US cellular network in Chicago. 1990 – Syrian forces attack free areas of Lebanon, removing General Michel Aoun from the presidential palace. 2010 – The mining accident in Copiapó, Chile ends as all 33 trapped miners arrive at the surface after a record 69 days underground. 2013 – A stampede occurs in India during the Hindu festival Navratri, killing 115 and injuring more than 110. 2016 – The Maldives announces its decision to withdraw from the Commonwealth of Nations. 2019 – Kenyan Brigid Kosgei sets a new world record for a woman runner with a time of 2:14:04 at the 2019 Chicago Marathon. Holidays and observances Azerbaijani Railway Day (Azerbaijan) Christian feast day: Blessed Alexandrina of Balasar Daniel and companions, of Ceuta Edward the Confessor (translation) Gerald of Aurillac Blessed Maddalena Panattieri (OP) Theophilus of Antioch October 13 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Doi taikomatsuri October 13–15 (Shikokuchūō, Ehime, Japan) International Day for Natural Disaster Reduction (international) National Police Day (Thailand) Paramedics' Day (Poland) Rwagasore Day (Burundi)
  17. October 12 is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 80 days remain until the end of the year. Events 539 BC – The army of Cyrus the Great of Persia takes Babylon, ending the Babylonian empire. (Julian calendar)[1] 633 – Battle of Hatfield Chase: King Edwin of Northumbria is defeated and killed by an alliance under Penda of Mercia and Cadwallon of Gwynedd.[2] 1279 – The Nichiren Shōshū branch of Buddhism is founded in Japan.[3] 1398 – In the Treaty of Salynas, Lithuania cedes Samogitia to the Teutonic Knights.[4] 1406 – Chen Yanxiang, the only person from Indonesia known to have visited dynastic Korea, reaches Seoul after having set out from Java four months before.[5] 1492 – Christopher Columbus's first expedition makes landfall in the Caribbean, specifically in The Bahamas.[6] 1654 – The Delft Explosion devastates the city in the Netherlands, killing more than 100 people. 1692 – The Salem witch trials are ended by a letter from Province of Massachusetts Bay Governor William Phips. 1748 – War of Jenkins' Ear: A British squadron wins a tactical victory over a Spanish squadron off Havana. 1773 – America's first insane asylum opens. 1792 – The first celebration of Columbus Day is held in New York City. 1793 – The cornerstone of Old East, the oldest state university building in the United States, is laid at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 1798 – Flemish and Luxembourgish peasants launch the rebellion against French rule known as the Peasants' War. 1799 – Jeanne Geneviève Labrosse becomes the first woman to jump from a balloon with a parachute. 1810 – The citizens of Munich hold the first Oktoberfest. 1822 – Pedro I of Brazil is proclaimed the emperor. 1847 – Werner von Siemens founds Siemens & Halske, which later becomes Siemens AG. 1849 – The city of Manizales, Colombia, is founded by 'The Expedition of the 20'. 1871 – The British in India enact the Criminal Tribes Act, naming many local communities "Criminal Tribes". 1890 – Uddevalla Suffrage Association is formed. 1892 – The Pledge of Allegiance is first recited by students in many US public schools. 1901 – President Theodore Roosevelt officially renames the "Executive Mansion" to the White House. 1915 – World War I: British nurse Edith Cavell is executed by a German firing squad for helping Allied soldiers escape from Belgium 1917 – World War I: The First Battle of Passchendaele takes place resulting in the largest single-day loss of life in New Zealand history. 1918 – A massive forest fire kills 453 people in Minnesota. 1928 – An iron lung respirator is used for the first time at Boston Children's Hospital. 1933 – The military Alcatraz Citadel becomes the civilian Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary. 1944 – World War II: The Axis occupation of Athens comes to an end. 1945 – World War II: Desmond Doss is the first conscientious objector to receive the U.S. Medal of Honor. 1959 – At the national congress of the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance in Peru, a group of leftist radicals are expelled from the party who later form APRA Rebelde. 1960 – Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev pounds his shoe on a desk at the United Nations to protest a Philippine assertion. 1960 – Japan Socialist Party leader Inejiro Asanuma is stabbed to death during a live Television broadcast. 1962 – The Columbus Day Storm strikes the U.S. Pacific Northwest with record wind velocities; 46 dead and at least U.S. $230 million in damages. 1963 – After nearly 23 years of imprisonment, Reverend Walter Ciszek, a Jesuit missionary, was released from the Soviet Union. 1964 – The Soviet Union launches the Voskhod 1 into Earth orbit as the first spacecraft with a multi-person crew, and the first flight without pressure suits. 1968 – Equatorial Guinea becomes independent from Spain. 1970 – Vietnam War: Vietnamization continues as President Nixon announces that the United States will withdraw 40,000 more troops before Christmas. 1971 – The 2,500 year celebration of the Persian Empire begins. 1979 – Typhoon Tip becomes the largest and most intense tropical cyclone ever recorded. 1983 – Japan's former Prime Minister Tanaka Kakuei is found guilty of taking a $2 million bribe from the Lockheed Corporation, and is sentenced to four years in jail. 1984 – The Provisional Irish Republican Army fail to assassinate Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and her cabinet. The bomb kills five people and wounds 31. 1988 – Two officers of the Victoria Police are gunned down execution-style in the Walsh Street police shootings, Australia. 1992 – A 5.8 earthquake occurred in Cairo, Egypt. At least 510 died. 1994 – The Magellan spacecraft burns up in the atmosphere of Venus. 1997 – The Sidi Daoud massacre in Algeria kills 43 people at a fake roadblock. 1998 – Matthew Shepard, a gay student at University of Wyoming, dies five days after he was beaten outside of Laramie. 1999 – Pervez Musharraf takes power in Pakistan from Nawaz Sharif through a bloodless coup. 1999 – The former Autonomous Soviet Republic of Abkhazia declares its independence from Georgia. 2000 – The USS Cole, a US Navy destroyer, is badly damaged by two suicide bombers, killing 17 crew members and wounding at least 39. 2002 – Terrorists detonate bombs in the Sari Club in Bali, killing 202 and wounding over 300. 2005 – The second Chinese human spaceflight, Shenzhou 6, is launched, carrying two cosmonauts in orbit for five days. 2013 – Fifty-one people are killed after a truck veers off a cliff in Peru. 2017 – The United States announces its decision to withdraw from UNESCO.[7] and is immediately followed by Israel. 2018 – Princess Eugenie marries Jack Brooksbank at St. George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. 2019 – Typhoon Hagibis makes landfall in Japan, killing 10 and forcing the evacutation of 1,000,000 people.[8] 2019 – Eliud Kipchoge from Kenya becomes the first person to run a marathon in less than two hours with a time of 1:59:40 in Vienna.[9] 2019 – The Hard Rock Hotel in New Orleans, which is under construction, collapses, killing two and injuring 20. Holidays and observances Christian feast day: Blessed Louis Brisson Edith Cavell and Elizabeth Fry (Church of England) Fiacc Our Lady of the Pillar (Fiestas del Pilar) Our Lady of Aparecida Radim Gaudentius (Czech Republic) Seraphin of Montegranaro Wilfrid of Ripon October 12 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Children's Day (Brazil) Discovery of America by Columbus-related observances (see also October 8 Columbus Day (Honduras) Día de la Hispanidad or Fiesta Nacional de España, also Armed Forces Day (Spain) Día de la Raza (El Salvador, Uruguay) Día de la Resistencia Indígena, "Day of Indigenous Resistance" (Venezuela) Día de las Américas (Belize) Día de las Culturas, "Day of the Cultures" (Costa Rica) Día del Respeto a la Diversidad Cultural, "Day of respect for cultural diversity" (Argentina) Discovery Day (The Bahamas, Colombia) Feast for Life of Aleister Crowley, celebrated as "Crowleymas" (Thelema) Fiesta Nacional de España (Spain) Freethought Day Independence Day (Equatorial Guinea), celebrates the independence of Equatorial Guinea from Spain in 1968. International Day Against DRM
  18. October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 81 days remain until the end of the year. Events 1138 – A massive earthquake strikes Aleppo; it is one of the most destructive earthquakes ever.[1] 1142 – A peace treaty ends the Jin–Song wars. 1311 – The peerage and clergy restrict the authority of English kings with the Ordinances of 1311. 1531 – Huldrych Zwingli is killed in battle with the Roman Catholic cantons of Switzerland. 1614 – The New Netherland Company applies to the States General of the Netherlands for exclusive trading rights in what is now the northeastern United States. 1634 – The Burchardi flood kills around 15,000 in North Friesland, Denmark and Germany. 1649 – Cromwell's New Model Army Sacks Wexford, killing over 2,000 Irish Confederate troops and 1,500 civilians. 1767 – Surveying for the Mason–Dixon line separating Maryland from Pennsylvania is completed. 1776 – American Revolution: A fleet of American boats on Lake Champlain is defeated by the Royal Navy, but delays the British advance until 1777. 1797 – The Royal Navy decisively defeats the Batavian Navy at Camperdown during the French Revolutionary Wars. 1811 – The Juliana begins operation as the first steam-powered ferry in New York harbor. 1840 – The Maronite leader Bashir Shihab II surrenders to the Ottoman Empire and later is sent to Malta in exile. 1852 – The University of Sydney, Australia's oldest university, is inaugurated in Sydney. 1862 – American Civil War: Confederate troops conduct a raid on Chambersburg, Pennsylvania. 1865 – Hundreds of black men and women march in Jamaica, starting the Morant Bay rebellion. 1890 – In Washington, D.C., the Daughters of the American Revolution is founded. 1899 – The Second Boer War erupts in South Africa between the British-ruled Cape Colony, and the Boer-ruled Transvaal and Orange Free State. 1906 – San Francisco sparks a diplomatic crisis between the United States and Japan by ordering segregated schools for Japanese students. 1910 – Piloted by Arch Hoxsey, Theodore Roosevelt becomes the first U.S. president to fly in an airplane. 1912 – First Balkan War: The day after the Battle of Sarantaporo, Greek troops liberate the city of Kozani. 1918 – The 7.1 Mw San Fermín earthquake shakes Puerto Rico. The quake and resulting tsunami kill up to 116 people. 1937 – The Duke and Duchess of Windsor tour Nazi Germany for 12 days and meet Adolf Hitler on the 22nd. 1941 – Beginning of the National Liberation War of Macedonia. 1942 – World War II: Off Guadalcanal, United States Navy ships intercept and defeat a Japanese force. 1944 – The Tuvan People's Republic is annexed by the Soviet Union. 1950 – CBS's field-sequential color system for television is the first to be licensed for broadcast by the U.S. Federal Communications Commission. 1954 – In accord with the 1954 Geneva Conference, French troops complete their withdrawal from North Vietnam. 1958 – NASA launches Pioneer 1, its first space probe, although it fails to achieve a stable orbit. 1962 – The Second Vatican Council becomes the first ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church in 92 years. 1968 – NASA launches Apollo 7, the first successful manned Apollo mission. 1972 – A race riot occurs on the United States Navy aircraft carrier Kitty Hawk off the coast of Vietnam. 1976 – George Washington is posthumously promoted to the grade of General of the Armies. 1984 – Aboard the Space Shuttle Challenger, astronaut Kathryn D. Sullivan becomes the first American woman to perform a space walk. 1984 – Aeroflot Flight 3352 crashes into maintenance vehicles upon landing in Omsk, Russia, killing 178. 1986 – Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev meet in Iceland to continue discussions about scaling back IRBM arsenals in Europe. 1987 – The AIDS Memorial Quilt is first displayed during the Second National March on Washington for Lesbian and Gay Rights. 1987 – Start of Operation Pawan by Indian forces in Sri Lanka. Thousands of civilians, insurgents, soldiers die. 1991 – Prof. Anita Hill delivers her televised testimony concerning sexual harassment during the Clarence Thomas Supreme Court nomination.[2] 2000 – NASA launches STS-92, the 100th Space Shuttle mission. 2001 – The Polaroid Corporation files for federal bankruptcy protection. 2002 – A bomb attack in a shopping mall in Finland kills seven. 2013 – A migrant boat sinks in the Channel of Sicily, with at least 34 people drowning. 2018 – Soyuz MS-10, launching an intended crew for the ISS, suffers an in-flight abort. The crew lands safely. Holidays and observances Christian feast days: Agilbert Alexander Sauli Andronicus, Probus, and Tarachus (Roman Catholic Church) Æthelburh of Barking Bruno the Great Cainnech of Aghaboe Gratus of Oloron Gummarus James the Deacon (Church of England, Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church) Lommán of Trim Maria Soledad Torres y Acosta Nectarius of Constantinople Nicasius, Quirinus, Scubiculus, and Pientia Philip the Evangelist Pope John XXIII (Roman Catholic Church) Zenaida and Philonella October 11 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) General Pulaski Memorial Day (United States) International Day of the Girl Child International Newspaper Carrier Day National Coming Out Day Old Michaelmas Day (Celtic) Revolution Day (Republic of Macedonia)
  19. October 10 is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 82 days remain until the end of the year. Events 680 – The Battle of Karbala is won by the Umayyads under Yazid I.[1] 732 – Charles Martel's forces defeat an Umayyad army near Tours, France. 1471 – Sten Sture the Elder, the Regent of Sweden, with the help of farmers and miners, repels an attack by King Christian I of Denmark. 1575 – Roman Catholic forces under Henry I, Duke of Guise defeat the Protestants, capturing Philippe de Mornay among others. 1580 – Over 600 Papal troops land in Ireland to support the Second Desmond Rebellion. 1631 – Thirty Years' War: An army of the Electorate of Saxony seizes Prague. 1760 – In a treaty with the Dutch colonial authorities, the Ndyuka people of Suriname – descended from escaped slaves – gain territorial autonomy. 1780 – The Great Hurricane of 1780 kills 20,000–30,000 in the Caribbean. 1814 – War of 1812: The United States Revenue Marine attempts to defend the cutter Eagle from the Royal Navy. 1845 – In Annapolis, Maryland, the Naval School (later the United States Naval Academy) opens with 50 students. 1846 – Triton, the largest moon of the planet Neptune, is discovered by English astronomer William Lassell. 1868 – The Ten Years' War begins against Spanish rule in Cuba. 1871 – Chicago burns after a barn accident. The fire lasts from October 8–10. 1903 – The Women's Social and Political Union is founded in support of the enfranchisement of British women.[2] 1911 – The day after a bomb explodes prematurely, the Wuchang Uprising begins against the Chinese monarchy. 1913 – U.S. President Wilson triggers the explosion of the Gamboa Dike, completing major construction on the Panama Canal. 1918 – RMS Leinster is torpedoed and sunk by UB-123, killing 564, the worst-ever on the Irish Sea.[3][4] 1920 – The Carinthian plebiscite determines that the larger part of the Duchy of Carinthia should remain part of Austria. 1928 – Chiang Kai-shek becomes Chairman of the Republic of China. 1933 – A United Airlines Boeing 247 is destroyed by sabotage, the first such proven case in the history of commercial aviation. 1935 – In Greece, a coup d'état ends the Second Hellenic Republic. 1938 – Abiding by the Munich Agreement, Czechoslovakia completes its withdrawal from the Sudetenland. 1945 – The Double Tenth Agreement is signed by the Communist Party and the Kuomintang about the future of China. 1954 – The Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Sultanate of Muscat, Neil Innes, sends a signal to the Sultanate's forces, accompanied with oil explorers, to penetrate Fahud, marking the beginning of Jebel Akhdar War between the Imamate of Oman and the Sultanate of Muscat.[5] 1957 – U.S. President Eisenhower apologizes to Ghanaian finance minister Gbedemah after he is refused service in a Delaware restaurant. 1957 – The Windscale fire results in Britain's worst nuclear accident. 1963 – France cedes control of the Bizerte naval base to Tunisia. 1963 – The Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty comes into effect. 1964 – The Tokyo Summer Olympics opening ceremony is the first to be relayed live by satellites. 1967 – The Outer Space Treaty comes into force. 1970 – Fiji becomes independent. 1970 – Canada's October Crisis escalates when Quebec's vice-premier is kidnapped by members of the FLQ. 1973 – U.S. Vice President Spiro Agnew resigns after being charged with evasion of federal income tax. 1975 – Papua New Guinea joins the United Nations. 1980 – The 7.1 Mw  El Asnam earthquake shakes northern Algeria, killing 2,633 and injuring 8,369. 1980 – The Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front is founded in El Salvador. 1985 – US Navy aircraft intercept an Egyptian airliner carrying the perpetrators of the Achille Lauro hijacking, and force it to land in Italy. 1986 – A 5.7 Mw  San Salvador earthquake shakes El Salvador, killing 1,500. 1997 – Austral Líneas Aéreas Flight 2553 crashes and explodes in Uruguay, killing 74. 1998 – A Lignes Aériennes Congolaises jetliner is shot down by rebels in Kindu, Democratic Republic of the Congo, killing 41 people. 2009 – Armenia and Turkey sign the Zurich Protocols, intended to normalize relations. However, they are never ratified by either side. 2010 – The Netherlands Antilles are dissolved as a country. 2015 – Twin bomb blasts in the Turkish capital Ankara kill 102 and injure 400. 2018 – Hurricane Michael makes landfall in the Florida Panhandle as a catastrophic Category 5 hurricane. It kills 57 people in the United States, 45 in Florida, and causes an estimated $25.1 billion in damage. Holidays and observances Arbor Day (Poland) Army Day (Sri Lanka) Capital Liberation Day (Vietnam) Christian feast day: Blessed Angela Truszkowska Cerbonius Daniel Comboni Eulampius and Eulampia Gereon and companions Blessed María Catalina Irigoyen Echegaray (Maria Desposorios) Paulinus of York (in England) Pinytus Tanca Vida Dutton Scudder (Episcopal Church) Viktor of Xanten October 10 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Double Ten Day (The National Day of Republic of China), celebrates outbreak of the Wuchang Uprising in 1911 that led to founding of the Republic of China in 1912 Fiji Day, celebrates the independence of Fiji from United Kingdom in 1970 Finnish Literature Day (Finland) Independence Day, commemorates the proclamation of Cuba's independence from Spain and the beginning of the Ten Years' War in 1868. Party Foundation Day (North Korea) World Day Against the Death Penalty World Mental Health Day
  20. October 9 is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 83 days remain until the end of the year. Events 768 – Carloman I and Charlemagne are crowned kings of the Franks. 1238 – James I of Aragon founds the Kingdom of Valencia. 1410 – The first known mention of the Prague astronomical clock. 1446 – The hangul alphabet is published in Korea. 1594 – Troops of the Portuguese Empire are defeated on Sri Lanka, bringing an end to the Campaign of Danture. 1604 – Kepler's Supernova is the most recent supernova to be observed within the Milky Way. 1635 – Roger Williams is banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony after religious and policy disagreements. 1701 – The Collegiate School of Connecticut (later renamed Yale University) is chartered in Old Saybrook. 1708 – Peter the Great defeats the Swedes at the Battle of Lesnaya. 1740 – Dutch colonists and Javanese natives begin a massacre of the ethnic Chinese population in Batavia, eventually killing at least 10,000. 1760 – Seven Years' War: Russian and Austrian troops briefly occupy Berlin. 1790 – A severe earthquake in northern Algeria causes severe damage and a tsunami in the Mediterranean Sea and kills three thousand. 1799 – HMS Lutine sinks with the loss of 240 men and a cargo worth £1,200,000. 1804 – Hobart, capital of Tasmania, is founded. 1806 – Prussia begins the War of the Fourth Coalition against France. 1812 – War of 1812: In a naval engagement on Lake Erie, American forces capture two British ships: HMS Detroit and HMS Caledonia. 1820 – Guayaquil declares independence from Spain. 1825 – Restauration arrives in New York Harbor from Norway, the first organized immigration from Norway to the United States. 1831 – Ioannis Kapodistrias, the first head of state of independent Greece, is assassinated. 1834 – Opening of the Dublin and Kingstown Railway, the first public railway on the island of Ireland. 1847 – Slavery is abolished in the Swedish colony of Saint Barthélemy. 1854 – Crimean War: The siege of Sevastopol begins. 1861 – American Civil War: Union troops repel a Confederate attempt to capture Fort Pickens. 1864 – American Civil War: Union cavalrymen defeat Confederate forces at Toms Brook, Virginia. 1873 – A meeting at the U.S. Naval Academy establishes the U.S. Naval Institute. 1874 – The Universal Postal Union is created by the Treaty of Bern. 1900 – The Cook Islands become a territory of the United Kingdom. 1911 – An accidental bomb explosion triggers the Wuchang Uprising against the Chinese monarchy. 1913 – The steamship SS Volturno catches fire in the mid-Atlantic. 1914 – World War I: The Siege of Antwerp comes to an end. 1918 – The Finnish Parliament offers to Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse the throne of a short-lived Kingdom of Finland. 1919 – The Cincinnati Reds win the World Series, resulting in the Black Sox Scandal. 1934 – An Ustashe assassin kills King Alexander I of Yugoslavia and Louis Barthou, Foreign Minister of France, in Marseille. 1936 – Boulder Dam (later Hoover Dam) begins to generate electricity and transmit it to Los Angeles. 1937 – Murder of 9 Catholic priests in Zhengding, China, who protected the local population from the advancing Japanese army. 1941 – A coup in Panama declares Ricardo Adolfo de la Guardia Arango the new president. 1942 – Australia's Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1942 receives royal assent. 1950 – The Goyang Geumjeong Cave massacre in Korea begins. 1962 – Uganda becomes an independent Commonwealth realm. 1963 – In Italy, a large landslide a causes a giant wave to overtop the Vajont Dam, killing over 2,000. 1966 – Vietnam War: South Korean troops commit the Binh Tai Massacre. 1967 – A day after his capture, Ernesto "Che" Guevara is executed for attempting to incite a revolution in Bolivia. 1969 – In Chicago, the National Guard is called in as demonstrations continue over the trial of the "Chicago Eight". 1970 – The Khmer Republic is proclaimed in Cambodia. 1980 – Pope John Paul II greets the Dalai Lama during a private audience in Vatican City. 1981 – President François Mitterrand abolishes capital punishment in France. 1983 – South Korean President Chun Doo-hwan survives an assassination attempt in Rangoon, Burma (present-day Yangon, Myanmar), but the blast kills 21 and injures 17 others. 1986 – The Phantom of the Opera, eventually the second longest running musical in London, opens at Her Majesty's Theatre. 1995 – An Amtrak Sunset Limited train is derailed by saboteurs near Palo Verde, Arizona. 2006 – North Korea conducts its first nuclear test. 2009 – First lunar impact of NASA's Lunar Precursor Robotic Program. 2012 – Pakistani Taliban attempt to assassinate outspoken schoolgirl Malala Yousafzai. 2016 – The Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army launches its first attack on Myanmar security forces along the Bangladesh–Myanmar border. 2019 – Turkey begins its military offensive in north-eastern Syria. Holidays and observances Christian feast day: Abraham Denis Dionysius the Areopagite Ghislain Innocencio of Mary Immaculate and Martyrs of Asturias Blessed John Henry Newman John Leonardi Luis Beltran Robert Grosseteste (Church of England) Wilfred Grenfell (Episcopal Church (USA)) October 9 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Fire Prevention Day (Canada, United States) Hangul Day (South Korea) Independence Day, celebrates the independence of Uganda from United Kingdom in 1962. (Uganda) Independence of Guayaquil from Spain in 1820 (Ecuador) Leif Erikson Day (United States, Iceland and Norway) National Day of Commemorating the Holocaust (Romania) National Nanotechnology Day (United States) Takayama Autumn Festival (Takayama, Japan) World Post Day
  21. October 8 is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 84 days remain until the end of the year. Events 314 – Constantine I defeats Roman Emperor Licinius, who loses his European territories.[1] 451 – The first session of the Council of Chalcedon begins. 876 – Frankish forces led by Louis the Younger prevent a West Frankish invasion and defeat emperor Charles II ("the Bald"). 1075 – Dmitar Zvonimir is crowned King of Croatia. 1200 – Isabella of Angoulême is crowned Queen consort of England. 1322 – Mladen II Šubić of Bribir is deposed as the Croatian Ban after the Battle of Bliska. 1480 – The Great stand on the Ugra river puts an end to Tartar rule over Moscow 1573 – End of the Spanish siege of Alkmaar, the first Dutch victory in the Eighty Years' War. 1645 – Jeanne Mance open the first lay hospital in North America. 1813 – The Treaty of Ried is signed between Bavaria and Austria. 1821 – The Peruvian Navy is established during the War of Independence. 1829 – Stephenson's Rocket wins the Rainhill Trials. 1856 – The Second Opium War between several western powers and China begins with the Arrow Incident. 1862 – American Civil War: The Confederate invasion of Kentucky is halted at the Battle of Perryville. 1871 – Slash-and-burn land management, months of drought, and the passage of a strong cold front cause the Peshtigo Fire, the Great Chicago Fire and the Great Michigan Fires to break out.[2] 1879 – War of the Pacific: The Chilean Navy defeats the Peruvian Navy in the Battle of Angamos. 1895 – Korean Empress Myeongseong is assassinated by Japanese infiltrators. 1912 – The First Balkan War begins when Montenegro declares war against the Ottoman Empire. 1918 – World War I: Corporal Alvin C. York kills 28 German soldiers and captures 132 for which he was awarded the Medal of Honor. 1921 – KDKA in Pittsburgh's Forbes Field conducts the first live broadcast of a football game. 1939 – World War II: Germany annexes western Poland. 1941 – World War II: During the preliminaries of the Battle of Rostov, German forces reach the Sea of Azov with the capture of Mariupol. 1943 – World War II: Around 30 civilians are executed by Friedrich Schubert's paramilitary group in Kallikratis, Crete. 1944 – World War II: Captain Bobbie Brown earns a Medal of Honor for his actions during the Battle of Crucifix Hill, just outside Aachen. 1952 – The Harrow and Wealdstone rail crash kills 112 people. 1956 – The New York Yankees's Don Larsen pitches the only perfect game in a World Series. 1962 – Der Spiegel publishes an article disclosing the sorry state of the Bundeswehr, and is soon accused of treason. 1967 – Guerrilla leader Che Guevara and his men are captured in Bolivia. 1969 – The opening rally of the Days of Rage occurs, organized by the Weather Underground in Chicago. 1970 – Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn wins the Nobel Prize in literature. 1973 – Yom Kippur War: Israel loses more than 150 tanks in a failed attack on Egyptian-occupied positions. 1973 – Spyros Markezinis begins his 48-day term as prime minister in an abortive attempt to lead Greece to parliamentary rule. 1974 – Franklin National Bank collapses due to fraud and mismanagement; at the time it is the largest bank failure in the history of the United States. 1978 – Australia's Ken Warby sets the current world water speed record of 317.60 mph at Blowering Dam, Australia. 1982 – Poland bans Solidarity and all other trade unions. 1982 – After its London premiere, Cats opens on Broadway and runs for nearly 18 years before closing on September 10, 2000. 1990 – Second Intifada: Israeli police kill 17 Palestinians and wound over 100 near the Dome of the Rock. 1991 – Upon the expiration of the Brioni Agreement, Croatia and Slovenia sever all official relations with Yugoslavia. 2001 – A twin engine Cessna and a Scandinavian Airlines System jetliner collide in heavy fog during takeoff from Milan, Italy, killing 118 people. 2001 – U.S. President George W. Bush announces the establishment of the Office of Homeland Security. 2005 – The 7.6 Mw  Kashmir earthquake leaves 86,000–87,351 people dead, 69,000–75,266 injured, and 2.8 million homeless. 2014 – Thomas Eric Duncan, the first person in the United States to be diagnosed with Ebola, dies. 2016 – In the wake of Hurricane Matthew, the death toll rises to nearly 900. 2019 – About 200 Extinction Rebellion activists block the gates of Leinster House (parliament) in the Republic of Ireland. Holidays and observances Christian feast day: Evodus (or Yves) Palatias and Laurentia Pelagia (Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches) Reparata San Ernesto, Che Guevara as a folk saint. (Bolivian campesinos) Simeon (Gospel of Luke) Thaïs William Dwight Porter Bliss and Richard T. Ely (Episcopal Church) October 8 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Earliest day on which Columbus Day can fall, while October 14 is the latest; observed on the second Monday of October (United States); and its related observance (see also October 12 Discoverer's Day (Hawaii) Indigenous Peoples' Day, a counter Columbus Day (United States) Piomingo Day (Chickasaw Nation) Earliest day on which Mother's Day can fall, while October 14 is the latest; celebrated on the second Monday in October (Malawi) Earliest day on which the first day of Fire Prevention Week can fall, while October 14 is the latest; observed on the second week in October. (United States and Canada) Earliest day on which Thanksgiving can fall, while October 14 is the latest; observed on the second Monday in October. (Canada) Earliest day on which White Sunday can fall, while October 14 is the latest; celebrated on the second Sunday in October. (Samoa, Tonga) World Space Week (October 4–10) Air Force Day (India) Arbor Day (Namibia) Children's Day (Iran) Navy Day (Peru)
  22. October 7 is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 85 days remain until the end of the year. Events 3761 BC – The epoch reference date epoch (origin) of the modern Hebrew calendar. 1403 – Venetian–Genoese wars: The Genoese fleet under a French admiral is defeated by a Venetian fleet. 1477 – Uppsala University is inaugurated after receiving its corporate rights from Pope Sixtus IV in February the same year. 1513 – War of the League of Cambrai: Spain defeats Venice. 1571 – The Battle of Lepanto is fought, and the Ottoman Navy suffers its first defeat. 1691 – The charter for the Province of Massachusetts Bay is issued. 1763 – King George III issues the Royal Proclamation of 1763, closing Indigenous lands in North America north and west of the Alleghenies to white settlements. 1777 – American Revolutionary War: The Americans defeat the British in the Second Battle of Saratoga, also known as the Battle of Bemis Heights. 1780 – American Revolutionary War: American militia defeat royalist irregulars led by British major Patrick Ferguson in South Carolina. 1800 – French corsair Robert Surcouf, commander of the 18-gun ship La Confiance, captures the British 38-gun Kent. 1826 – The Granite Railway begins operations as the first chartered railway in the U.S. 1828 – Morea expedition: The city of Patras, Greece, is liberated by the French expeditionary force. 1840 – Willem II becomes King of the Netherlands. 1864 – American Civil War: A US Navy ship captures a Confederate raider in a Brazilian seaport. 1868 – Cornell University holds opening day ceremonies; initial student enrollment is 412, the highest at any American university to that date. 1870 – Franco-Prussian War: Léon Gambetta escapes the siege of Paris in a hot-air balloon. 1879 – Germany and Austria-Hungary sign the "Twofold Covenant" and create the Dual Alliance. 1912 – The Helsinki Stock Exchange sees its first transaction. 1916 – Georgia Tech defeats Cumberland University 222–0 in the most lopsided college football game in American history. 1919 – KLM, the flag carrier of the Netherlands, is founded. It is the oldest airline still operating under its original name. 1924 – Andreas Michalakopoulos becomes prime minister of Greece for a short period of time. 1929 – Photius II becomes Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople. 1933 – Air France is inaugurated, after being formed by a merger of five French airlines. 1940 – World War II: The McCollum memo proposes bringing the United States into the war in Europe by provoking the Japanese to attack the United States. 1944 – World War II: During an uprising at Birkenau concentration camp, Jewish prisoners burn down Crematorium IV. 1949 – The communist German Democratic Republic (East Germany) is formed. 1950 – Mother Teresa establishes the Missionaries of Charity. 1958 – The 1958 Pakistani coup d'état inaugurates a prolonged period of military rule. 1958 – The U.S. manned space-flight project is renamed Project Mercury. 1959 – The Soviet probe Luna 3 transmits the first-ever photographs of the far side of the Moon. 1963 – President Kennedy signs the ratification of the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. 1977 – The Fourth Soviet Constitution is adopted. 1985 – The Mameyes landslide kills almost 200 people in Puerto Rico. 1985 – Four men from the Palestine Liberation Front hijack the MS Achille Lauro off the coast of Egypt. 1987 – Sikh nationalists declare the independence of Khalistan from India; it is not internationally recognized. 1988 – A hunter discovers three gray whales trapped under the ice near Alaska; the situation becomes a multinational effort to free the whales. 1991 – Croatian War of Independence: Bombing of Banski dvori in Zagreb, Croatia. 1993 – The flood of '93 ends at St. Louis, Missouri, 103 days after it began, as the Mississippi River falls below flood stage. 1996 – Fox News Channel begins broadcasting. 1998 – Matthew Shepard, a gay student at the University of Wyoming, is found tied to a fence after being savagely beaten by two young adults in Laramie, Wyoming. He died five days later. 2000 – Israeli-Palestinian conflict: Hezbollah militants capture three Israeli Defense Force soldiers in a cross-border raid. 2001 – The U.S. invasion of Afghanistan begins with an air assault and covert operations on the ground. 2002 – The Space Shuttle Atlantis launches on STS-112 to continue assembly of the International Space Station.[1] 2008 – Asteroid 2008 TC3 impacts the Earth over Sudan, the first time an asteroid impact is detected prior to its entry into earth's atmosphere. 2016 – In the wake of Hurricane Matthew, the death toll rises to 800. Holidays and observances Christian feast day: Justina of Padua Henry Muhlenberg (some Lutheran Churches, Episcopal Church of the USA) Osgyth Our Lady of the Rosary Pope Mark Sergius and Bacchus October 7 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Teachers' Day (Laos)
  23. October 6 is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 86 days remain until the end of the year. Events 105 BC – Cimbrian War: Defeat at the Battle of Arausio accelerates the Marian reforms of the Roman army. 69 BC – Third Mithridatic War: Forces of the Roman Republic subdue Armenia. AD 23 – Rebels decapitate Wang Mang two days after his capital was sacked during a peasant rebellion. 404 – Byzantine Empress Eudoxia dies from the miscarriage of her seventh and last pregnancy. 618 – Transition from Sui to Tang: Wang Shichong decisively defeats Li Mi at the Battle of Yanshi. 1539 – Spain's DeSoto expedition takes over the Apalachee capital of Anhaica for their winter quarters. 1600 – Euridice, the earliest surviving opera, receives its première performance, beginning the Baroque period. 1683 – Immigrant families found Germantown, Pennsylvania in the first major immigration of German people to America. 1762 – Seven Years' War: The British Capture Manila from Spain and occupy it. 1777 – American Revolutionary War: British forces capture Forts Clinton and Montgomery on the Hudson River. 1789 – French Revolution: King Louis XVI is forced to change his residence from Versailles to the Tuileries Palace. 1849 – The execution of the 13 Martyrs of Arad after the Hungarian war of independence. 1854 – In England the Great fire of Newcastle and Gateshead leads to 53 deaths and hundreds injured. 1884 – The Naval War College of the United States is founded in Rhode Island. 1898 – Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia, the largest American music fraternity, is founded at the New England Conservatory of Music. 1903 – The High Court of Australia sits for the first time. 1908 – The Bosnian crisis erupts when Austria-Hungary formally annexes Bosnia and Herzegovina. 1910 – Eleftherios Venizelos is elected prime minister of Greece for the first of seven times. 1923 – The Turkish National Movement enters Constantinople. 1927 – Opening of The Jazz Singer, the first prominent "talkie" movie. 1939 – World War II: The Battle of Kock is the final combat of the September Campaign in Poland. 1942 – World War II: American troops force the Japanese from their positions east of the Matanikau River on Guadalcanal. 1943 – World War II: Thirteen civilians are burnt alive by a paramilitary group in Crete. 1944 – World War II: Units of the 1st Czechoslovak Army Corps enter Czechoslovakia during the Battle of the Dukla Pass. 1973 – Egypt and Syria launch coordinated attacks against Israel, beginning the Yom Kippur War. 1976 – Cubana de Aviación Flight 455 is destroyed by two bombs, placed on board by an anti-Castro militant group. 1976 – Premier Hua Guofeng arrests the Gang of Four, ending the Cultural Revolution in China. 1976 – Dozens are killed by the Thai army in the Thammasat University massacre. 1977 – The first prototype of the Mikoyan MiG-29, designated 9-01, makes its maiden flight. 1979 – Pope John Paul II becomes the first pontiff to visit the White House. 1981 – Egyptian President Anwar Sadat is murdered by Islamic extremists. 1985 – Police constable Keith Blakelock is murdered as riots erupt in the Broadwater Farm suburb of London. 1987 – Fiji becomes a republic. 1995 – The first planet orbiting another sun, 51 Pegasi b, is discovered. 2007 – Jason Lewis completes the first human-powered circumnavigation of the Earth. 2010 – Instagram, a mainstream photo-sharing application, is founded. Holidays and observances Christian feast day: Blessed Marie Rose Durocher Blessed Juan de Palafox y Mendoza Bruno of Cologne Faith Mary Frances of the Five Wounds Pardulphus Sagar of Laodicea October 6 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) William Tyndale (commemoration, Anglicanism), with Myles Coverdale (Episcopal Church (USA)) World Space Week (October 4–10) Day of Commemoration and National Mourning (Turkmenistan) Dukla Pass Victims Day (Slovakia) German-American Day (United States) Memorial Day for the Martyrs of Arad (Hungary) Teachers' Day (Sri Lanka) Yom Kippur War commemorations: Armed Forces Day (Egypt) Tishreen Liberation Day (Syria)
  24. October 5 is the 278th day of the year (279th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 87 days remain until the end of the year. Events 610 – Heraclius arrives at Constantinople, kills Byzantine Emperor Phocas, and becomes emperor.[1] 816 – King Louis the Pious is crowned emperor of the Holy Roman Empire by the Pope.[2] 869 – The Fourth Council of Constantinople is convened to depose patriarch Photios I.[3] 1143 – King Alfonso VII of León and Castile recognises Portugal as a Kingdom. 1450 – Louis IX, Duke of Bavaria expels Jews from his jurisdiction. 1607 – Assassins sent by the Pope attempt to kill Venetian statesman and scientist Paolo Sarpi. 1789 – French Revolution: The Women's March on Versailles effectively terminates royal authority. 1813 – War of 1812: The Army of the Northwest defeats a British and Native Canadian force threatening Detroit. 1838 – The Killough massacre in east Texas sees eighteen Texian settlers either killed or kidnapped. 1869 – The Saxby Gale devastates the Bay of Fundy region in Canada. 1869 – The Hennepin Island tunnel collapses during construction, nearly destroying St. Anthony Falls. 1877 – The Nez Perce War in the northwestern United States comes to an end. 1905 – The Wright brothers pilot the Wright Flyer III in a new world record flight of 24 miles in 39 minutes. 1910 – In a revolution in Portugal the monarchy is overthrown and a republic is declared. 1911 – The Kowloon–Canton Railway commences service. 1914 – World War I: An aircraft successfully destroys another aircraft with gunfire.[4] 1921 – The World Series is the first to be broadcast on radio. 1930 – British airship R101 crashes in France en route to India on its maiden voyage killing 48 people.[5] 1936 – The Jarrow March sets off for London. 1938 – In Nazi Germany, Jews' passports are invalidated. 1943 – Ninety-eight American POWs are executed by Japanese forces on Wake Island. 1944 – The Provisional Government of the French Republic enfranchises women. 1945 – A six-month strike by Hollywood set decorators turns into a bloody riot at the gates of the Warner Brothers studio. 1947 – President Truman makes the first televised Oval Office address.[6] 1948 – The Ashgabat earthquake kills between 10,000 and 110,000 people. 1963 – The United States suspends the Commercial Import Program in response to repression of the Buddhist majority by the regime of President Ngo Dinh Diem.[7] 1966 – A reactor at the Enrico Fermi Nuclear Generating Station near Detroit suffers a partial meltdown. 1968 – A Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association march in Derry is violently suppressed by police. 1970 – The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is founded. 1970 – The British Trade Commissioner is kidnapped by members of the FLQ, triggering the October Crisis in Canada. 1974 – Bombs planted by the PIRA kill four British soldiers and one civilian. 1982 – Tylenol products are recalled after bottles in Chicago laced with cyanide cause seven deaths. 1984 – Marc Garneau becomes the first Canadian in space. 1986 – Mordechai Vanunu's story in The Sunday Times reveals Israel's secret nuclear weapons. 1988 – A Chilean opposition coalition defeats Augusto Pinochet in his re-election attempt. 1990 – After 150 years The Herald newspaper in Melbourne, Australia, is published for the last time as a separate newspaper. 1991 – An Indonesian Air Force C-130 crash kills 135 people. 1999 – The Ladbroke Grove rail crash in west London kills 31 people. 2000 – Mass demonstrations in Serbia force the resignation of Slobodan Milošević. 2011 – In the Mekong River massacre, two Chinese cargo boats are hijacked and 13 crew members murdered. Holidays and observances World Space Week (October 4–10) Armed Forces Day (Indonesia) Christian feast day: Anna Schäffer Faustina Kowalska Blessed Francis Xavier Seelos (Roman Catholic Church) Blessed Bartolo Longo Thraseas Hor and Susia (Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria) Placid and Maurus Placidus (martyr) October 5 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Constitution Day (Vanuatu) Engineer's Day (Bolivia) International Day of No Prostitution Republic Day (Portugal) Teachers' Day (Pakistan) Teachers' Day (Russia) World Teachers' Day
  25. October 4 is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 88 days remain until the end of the year. Events AD 23 – Rebels sack the Chinese capital Chang'an during a peasant rebellion. 1302 – The Byzantine–Venetian War comes to an end. 1363 – Battle of Lake Poyang: In one of the largest naval battles in history, Zhu Yuanzhang's rebels defeat rival Chen Youliang. 1511 – Formation of the Holy League of Aragon, the Papal States and Venice against France. 1535 – The Coverdale Bible is printed, with translations into English by William Tyndale and Myles Coverdale.[1] 1582 – The Gregorian Calendar is introduced by Pope Gregory XIII. 1597 – Governor Gonzalo Méndez de Canço begins to suppress a native uprising against his rule in what is now Georgia. 1636 – Thirty Years' War: The Swedish Army defeats the armies of Saxony and the Holy Roman Empire at the Battle of Wittstock. 1693 – Nine Years' War: Piedmontese troops are defeated by the French. 1777 – American Revolutionary War: Troops under George Washington are repelled by British troops under William Howe. 1795 – Napoleon first rises to prominence by suppressing counter-revolutionary rioters threatening the National Convention. 1824 – Mexico adopts a new constitution and becomes a federal republic. 1830 – The Belgian Revolution takes legal form when the provisional government secedes from the Netherlands. 1853 – The Crimean War begins when the Ottoman Empire declares war on the Russian Empire. 1876 – The Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas opens as the first public college in Texas. 1883 – First run of the Orient Express. 1883 – First meeting of the Boys' Brigade in Glasgow, Scotland. 1895 – Horace Rawlins wins the first U.S. Open Men's Golf Championship. 1917 – World War I: The Battle of Broodseinde is fought between the British and German armies in Flanders. 1918 – World War I: An explosion kills more than 100 people and destroys a Shell Loading Plant in New Jersey. 1927 – Gutzon Borglum begins sculpting Mount Rushmore. 1936 – The British Union of Fascists and various anti-fascist organizations violently clash in the Battle of Cable Street. 1941 – Norman Rockwell's Willie Gillis character debuts on the cover of The Saturday Evening Post. 1957 – Sputnik 1 becomes the first artificial satellite to orbit the Earth. 1958 – The current constitution of France is adopted. 1960 – An airliner crashes on takeoff from Boston's Logan International Airport, killing 62 people. 1963 – Hurricane Flora kills 6,000 in Cuba and Haiti. 1965 – Pope Paul VI begins the first papal visit to the Americas. 1966 – Basutoland becomes independent from the United Kingdom and is renamed Lesotho. 1967 – Omar Ali Saifuddien III of Brunei abdicates in favour of his son. 1983 – Richard Noble sets a new land speed record of 633.468 miles per hour (1,019.468 km/h) at the Black Rock Desert in Nevada. 1985 – The Free Software Foundation is founded. 1991 – The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty is opened for signature. 1992 – The Rome General Peace Accords end a 16-year civil war in Mozambique. 1992 – El Al Flight 1862 crashes into two apartment buildings in Amsterdam, killing 43 including 39 on the ground. 1993 – Battle of Mogadishu occurs killing 18 U.S. Special Forces, two UN Peacekeepers and at least 600 Somalian militia men and civilians. 1993 – Tanks bombard the Russian parliament, while demonstrators against President Yeltsin rally outside. 1997 – The second largest cash robbery in U.S. history occurs in North Carolina 2001 – Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 crashes after being struck by an errant Ukrainian missile. Seventy-eight people are killed. 2003 – The Maxim restaurant suicide bombing Israel kills twenty-one Israelis, both Jews and Arabs. 2004 – SpaceShipOne wins the Ansari X Prize for private spaceflight. 2006 – WikiLeaks is launched. 2010 – The Ajka plant accident Hungary releases a million cubic metres of liquid alumina sludge, killing nine, injuring 122, and severely contaminating two major rivers. 2017 – Joint Nigerian-American Special Forces are ambushed by Islamic State militants outside the village of Tongo Tongo. Holidays and observances Christian feast day: Amun Francis of Assisi Petronius of Bologna October 4 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Cinnamon Roll Day (Sweden) Day of Peace and Reconciliation (Mozambique) Independence Day, celebrates the independence of Lesotho from the United Kingdom in 1966. The beginning of World Space Week (International) World Animal Day
  26. October 3 is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 89 days remain until the end of the year. Events 2457 BC – Gaecheonjeol, Hwanung (환웅) purportedly descended from heaven. South Korea's National Foundation Day. 52 BC – Vercingetorix, leader of the Gauls, surrenders to the Romans under Julius Caesar, ending the siege and battle of Alesia. 42 BC – Triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fight a decisive battle with Caesar's assassins Brutus and Cassius. 382 – Roman Emperor Theodosius I concludes a peace treaty with the Goths and settles them in the Balkans. 1283 – Dafydd ap Gruffydd, prince of Gwynedd in Wales, is the first nobleman to be executed by hanging, drawing and quartering. 1392 – Muhammed VII becomes the twelfth sultan of the Emirate of Granada. 1574 – The Siege of Leiden is lifted by the Watergeuzen. 1683 – Qing dynasty naval commander Shi Lang receives the surrender of the Tungning kingdom on Taiwan after the Battle of Penghu. 1712 – The Duke of Montrose issues a warrant for the arrest of Rob Roy MacGregor. 1739 – The Treaty of Niš is signed by the Ottoman Empire and Russia at the end of the Russian–Turkish War. 1789 – George Washington proclaims a Thanksgiving Day for that year. 1792 – A militia departs from the Spanish stronghold of Valdivia to quell a Huilliche uprising in southern Chile.[1] 1795 – Slave rebel leader Tula is executed in Curaçao. 1863 – The last Thursday in November is declared as Thanksgiving Day by U.S. President Abraham Lincoln. 1873 – Chief Kintpuash and companions are hanged for their part in the Modoc War of northern California. 1912 – U.S. forces defeat Nicaraguan rebels at the Battle of Coyotepe Hill. 1918 – King Boris III of Bulgaria accedes to the throne. 1919 – Cincinnati Reds pitcher Adolfo Luque becomes the first Latin player to appear in a World Series. 1929 – The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes is renamed to Yugoslavia by King Alexander I. 1930 – The German Socialist Labour Party in Poland – Left is founded. 1932 – Iraq gains independence from the United Kingdom. 1935 – Second Italo-Abyssinian War: Italy invades Ethiopia. 1942 – A German V-2 rocket reaches a record 85 km (46 nm) in altitude. 1943 – World War II: German forces murder 92 civilians in Lyngiades, Greece. 1949 – WERD, the first black-owned radio station in the United States, opens in Atlanta. 1951 – Korean War: The First Battle of Maryang San pits Commonwealth troops against communist Chinese troops. 1952 – The United Kingdom successfully tests a nuclear weapon to become the world's third nuclear power. 1957 – The California State Superior Court rules that the book Howl and Other Poems is not obscene. 1962 – Project Mercury: Wally Schirra in Sigma 7 launched from Cape Canaveral for a six-orbit flight. 1963 – A violent coup in Honduras begins two decades of military rule. 1978 – A Finnish Air Force DC-3 crashes, killing all 15 people on board. 1981 – The hunger strike at the Maze Prison in Northern Ireland ends after seven months and ten deaths. 1985 – The Space Shuttle Atlantis makes its maiden flight. 1986 – TASCC, a superconducting cyclotron at the Chalk River Laboratories in Canada, is officially opened. 1989 – A coup in Panama City is suppressed and 11 participants are executed. 1990 – The German Democratic Republic is abolished and becomes part of the Federal Republic of Germany. 1991 – Nadine Gordimer is announced as the winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature.[2] 1993 – An American attack against a warlord in Mogadishu fails; eighteen US soldiers and over 350 Somalis die. 1995 – The O. J. Simpson murder case ends with a verdict of not guilty. 2008 – The Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 for the U.S. financial system is signed by President George W. Bush. 2009 – Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Turkey join together in the Turkic Council. 2010 – The 19th Commonwealth Games commence in Delhi. 2013 – At least 360 migrants are killed when their boat sinks near the Italian island of Lampedusa. 2015 – Forty-two are killed and 33 go missing in the Kunduz hospital airstrike. 2017 – King Felipe VI of Spain makes a special televised speech on Catalan independence referendum crisis. Holidays and observances Christian feast day: Abd-al-Masih Adalgott Blessed Szilárd Bogdánffy Dionysius the Areopagite Émilie de Villeneuve Ewald the Black and Ewald the Fair Francis Borgia George Bell and John Raleigh Mott (Episcopal Church) Gerard of Brogne Hesychius of Sinai Théodore Guérin October 3 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) German Unity Day (Germany) Morazán Day (Honduras) National Day, celebrates the independence of Iraq from the United Kingdom in 1932. National Foundation Day or Gaecheonjeol (South Korea) On social media: "Mean Girls Day", a widespread phenomenon in celebration of the film Mean Girls On social media: "Fullmetal Alchemist Day", a similar celebration of the Japanese shōnen manga series Fullmetal Alchemist
  27. October 2 is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 90 days remain until the end of the year. Events 829 – Theophilos succeeds his father Michael II as Byzantine Emperor. 939 – Battle of Andernach: Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, crushes a rebellion against his rule, by a coalition of Eberhard of Franconia and other Frankish dukes. 1187 – Siege of Jerusalem: Saladin captures Jerusalem after 88 years of Crusader rule. 1263 – The Battle of Largs is fought between Norwegians and Scots. 1470 – The Earl of Warwick's rebellion forces King Edward IV of England to flee to the Netherlands, restoring Henry VI to the throne. 1528 – William Tyndale publishes The Obedience of a Christian Man, which advocates the divine right of kings. 1535 – Jacques Cartier discovers the present site of Montreal. 1552 – Russo-Kazan Wars: Russian troops enter Kazan. 1780 – American Revolutionary War: John André, a British Army officer, is hanged as a spy by the Continental Army. 1789 – The United States Bill of Rights is sent to the various States for ratification. 1814 – Chilean War of Independence: Royalist troops defeat Chilean forces of Bernardo O'Higgins and José Miguel Carrera. 1835 – Texas Revolution: Mexican troops attempt to disarm the people of Gonzales, but encounter stiff resistance from a hastily assembled militia. 1864 – American Civil War: Confederates defeat a Union attack on Saltville, Virginia. A massacre of wounded Union prisoners (most of them are from a Black cavalry unit) ensues. 1870 – By plebiscite, the citizens of the Papal States accept annexation by the Kingdom of Italy. 1919 – U.S. President Woodrow Wilson suffers a massive stroke, leaving him incapacitated for several weeks. 1928 – The "Prelature of the Holy Cross and the Work of God", commonly known as Opus Dei, is founded. 1937 – Rafael Trujillo orders the execution of Haitians living in the northwestern region of the Dominican Republic. 1941 – World War II: In Operation Typhoon, the Wehrmacht attempts to capture Moscow before the onset of winter. 1942 – World War II: Ocean Liner RMS Queen Mary accidentally rams and sinks HMS Curacoa, killing 337 crewmen aboard Curacoa. 1944 – World War II: German troops end the Warsaw Uprising. 1958 – Guinea declares its independence from France. 1967 – Thurgood Marshall is sworn in as the first African-American justice of the United States Supreme Court. 1968 – Mexican President Gustavo Díaz Ordaz orders soldiers to suppress a demonstration of unarmed students, ten days before the start of the 1968 Summer Olympics. 1970 – An aircraft carrying the Wichita State University football team, administrators, and supporters crashes in Colorado, killing 31 people. 1971 – South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu was re-elected in a one-man election.[1] 1980 – Michael Myers becomes the first member of either chamber of Congress to be expelled since the Civil War. 1990 – Xiamen Airlines Flight 8301 is hijacked and lands at Guangzhou, where it crashes into two other airliners on the ground, killing 128. 1992 – Military police storm the Carandiru Penitentiary in São Paulo, Brazil during a prison riot. The resulting massacre leaves 111 prisoners dead. 1996 – Aeroperú Flight 603 crashes into the ocean near Peru, killing all 70 people on board. 1996 – The Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendments are signed by U.S. President Bill Clinton. 2000 – The Rijndael algorithm is chosen by NIST as the AES standard. 2002 – The Beltway sniper attacks begin, extending over three weeks. 2004 – The first parkrun, then known as the Bushy Park Time Trial, takes place in Bushy Park, London, UK.[2] 2006 – Five Amish girls are murdered in a shooting at a school in Pennsylvania, United States. 2007 – President Roh Moo-hyun of South Korea goes to North Korea for an Inter-Korean summit with North Korean leader Kim Jong-il. 2016 – Ethiopian protests break out during a festival in the Oromia region, killing dozens of people. Holidays and observances Batik Day (Indonesia) Christian feast day: Memorial of the Holy Guardian Angels Leodegar October 2 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Gandhi's birthday-related observances: Gandhi Jayanti (India) International Day of Non-Violence Independence Day, celebrates the independence of Guinea from France in 1958. National Grandparents Day (Italy)
  28. October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 91 days remain until the end of the year. Events 331 BC – Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela.[1] 366 – Pope Damasus I is consecrated.[2] 959 – Edgar the Peaceful becomes king of all England, in succession to Eadwig.[3] 965 – Pope John XIII is consecrated.[4] 1553 – Coronation of Queen Mary I of England.[5] 1588 – Coronation of Shah Abbas I of Persia. 1730 – Ahmed III is forced to abdicate as the Ottoman sultan. 1787 – Russians under Alexander Suvorov defeat the Turks at Kinburn. 1791 – First session of the French Legislative Assembly. 1795 – More than a year after the Battle of Sprimont, the Austrian Netherlands (present-day Belgium) are officially annexed by Revolutionary France. 1800 – Via the Third Treaty of San Ildefonso, Spain cedes Louisiana to France, which would sell the land to the United States thirty months later. 1814 – Opening of the Congress of Vienna, intended to redraw Europe's political map after the defeat of Napoleon the previous spring. 1827 – Russo-Persian War: The Russian army under Ivan Paskevich storms Yerevan, ending a millennium of Muslim domination of Armenia. 1829 – South African College is founded in Cape Town, South Africa. It will later separate into the University of Cape Town and the South African College Schools. 1832 – Texian political delegates convene at San Felipe de Austin to petition for changes in the governance of Mexican Texas. 1861 – Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management is published, going on to sell 60,000 copies in its first year and remaining in print until the present day. 1887 – Balochistan is conquered by the British Empire. 1890 – Yosemite National Park is established by the U.S. Congress. 1891 – Stanford University opens its doors in California, United States. 1898 – The Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration is founded under the name k.u.k. Exportakademie. 1903 – Baseball: The Boston Americans play the Pittsburgh Pirates in the first game of the modern World Series. 1908 – Ford Model T automobiles are offered for sale at a price of US$825. 1910 – A large bomb destroys the Los Angeles Times building, killing 21. 1918 – World War I: The Egyptian Expeditionary Force captures Damascus. 1918 – Sayid Abdullah becomes the last Khan of Khiva. 1928 – The Soviet Union introduces its first five-year plan. 1931 – The George Washington Bridge in the United States, linking New Jersey and New York, is opened. 1931 – Clara Campoamor persuades the Constituent Cortes to enfranchise women in Spain's new constitution. 1936 – Spanish Civil War: Francisco Franco is named head of the Nationalist government of Spain. 1936 – Spanish Civil War: The Central Committee of Antifascist Militias of Catalonia dissolves itself, handing control of Catalan defence militias over to the Generalitat.[6] 1938 – Germany annexes the Sudetenland. 1939 – World War II: After a one-month siege, German troops occupy Warsaw. 1940 – The Pennsylvania Turnpike, often considered the first superhighway in the United States, opens to traffic. 1942 – World War II: USS Grouper torpedoes Lisbon Maru, not knowing that she is carrying British prisoners of war from Hong Kong. 1943 – World War II: After the Four Days of Naples, Allied troops enter the city. 1946 – Nazi leaders are sentenced at the Nuremberg trials. 1946 – The Daegu October Incident occurs in Allied-occupied Korea. 1947 – The North American F-86 Sabre flies for the first time. 1949 – The People's Republic of China is established. 1953 – Andhra State is formed, consisting of a Telugu-speaking area carved out of India's Madras State. 1953 – A Mutual Defense Treaty Between the United States and the Republic of Korea is concluded in Washington, D.C.[7] 1955 – The Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region is established. 1957 – First appearance of In God we trust on U.S. paper currency. 1958 – The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics is replaced by NASA. 1960 – Nigeria gains independence from the United Kingdom. 1961 – The United States Defense Intelligence Agency is formed, becoming the country's first centralized military intelligence organization. 1961 – East and West Cameroon merge to form the Federal Republic of Cameroon. 1964 – The Free Speech Movement is launched on the campus of the University of California, Berkeley. 1964 – Japanese Shinkansen ("bullet trains") begin high-speed rail service from Tokyo to Osaka. 1966 – West Coast Airlines Flight 956 crashes with no survivors in Oregon. This accident marks the first loss of a DC-9. 1968 – Guyana nationalizes the British Guiana Broadcasting Service, which would eventually become part of the National Communications Network, Guyana. 1969 – Concorde breaks the sound barrier for the first time. 1971 – Walt Disney World opens near Orlando, Florida. 1971 – The first practical CT scanner is used to diagnose a patient. 1975 – Muhammad Ali defeats Joe Frazier in a boxing match in Manila, Philippines. 1978 – Tuvalu gains independence from the United Kingdom. 1979 – Pope John Paul II begins his first pastoral visit to the United States. 1979 – The MTR, the rapid transit railway system in Hong Kong, opens. 1982 – Helmut Kohl replaces Helmut Schmidt as Chancellor of Germany through a constructive vote of no confidence. 1982 – Epcot opens at Walt Disney World in Florida. 1982 – Sony and Phillips launch the compact disc in Japan. On the same day, Sony released the model CDP-101 compact disc player, the first player of its kind. 1985 – Israel-Palestinian conflict: Israel attacks the Palestine Liberation Organization headquarters in Tunisia during "Operation Wooden Leg". 1987 – The 5.9 Mw  Whittier Narrows earthquake shakes the San Gabriel Valley with a Mercalli intensity of VIII (Severe), killing eight and injuring 200. 1989 – Denmark introduces the world's first legal same-sex registered partnerships. 1991 – Croatian War of Independence: The Siege of Dubrovnik begins. 1994 – Palau enters a Compact of Free Association with the United States. 2000 – Israel-Palestinian conflict: Palestinians protest the murder of 12-year-old Muhammad al-Durrah by the Israeli police in northern Israel, beginning the "October 2000 events".[8] 2001 – Militants attack the state legislature building in Kashmir, killing 38. 2009 – The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom takes over the judicial functions of the House of Lords. 2012 – A ferry collision off the coast of Hong Kong kills 38 people and injures 102 others. 2014 – A series of explosions at a gunpowder plant in Bulgaria completely destroys the factory, killing 15 people. 2014 – A double bombing of an elementary school in Homs, Syria kills over 50 people.[9] 2015 – A gunman kills nine people at a community college in Oregon. 2015 – Heavy rains trigger a major landslide in Guatemala, killing 280 people. 2017 – An independence referendum, declared illegal by the Constitutional Court of Spain, takes place in Catalonia. 2017 – Fifty-eight people are killed and 869 others injured in a mass shooting at a country music festival at the Las Vegas Strip in the United States; the gunman, Stephen Paddock, later commits suicide. Holidays and observances Armed Forces Day (South Korea) Beginning of the United States' Fiscal Year Children's Day (El Salvador, Guatemala, Sri Lanka); celebrated on the first Friday of October (Singapore), assignation and recognition on the first Wednesday of October (Chile) Christian feast day: Abai (Syriac Orthodox Church) Bavo of Ghent Blessed Edward James Nicetius (Roman Catholic Church) Remigius Thérèse of Lisieux Protection/Patronage of the Theotokos (Eastern Catholic Churches) October 1 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Day of Prosecutors (Azerbaijan) Earliest day on which Teacher's Day can fall, while October 7 is the latest; celebrated on the first Sunday of October. (Belarus, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Ukraine) Earliest day on which World Habitat Day can fall, while October 7 is the latest; celebrated on the first Monday of October. (International) Ground Forces Day (Russia) Independence Day, celebrates the independence of Cyprus from United Kingdom in 1960. Independence Day, celebrates the independence of Nigeria from United Kingdom in 1960. Independence Day, celebrates the independence of Palau from the UN Trust Territory status in 1994. Independence Day, celebrates the independence of Tuvalu from United Kingdom in 1978. International Day of Older Persons Lincolnshire Day (United Kingdom) National Day of the People's Republic of China (People's Republic of China) Pancasila Sanctity Day (Indonesia) Teacher's Day (Uzbekistan) Unification Day (Cameroon)
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